Increasing Independent Toileting in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Other Developmental Disabilities: A Systematic Review

Vicky G. Spencer, Ph.D, BCBA-D, LBA 
Meghan Ello, M.S., BCBA, LBA

Shenandoah University


Being able to independently and correctly complete a toileting routine is an important developmental milestone for all children, but for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), it may be an extremely difficult skill to acquire (Keen et al., 2007). The focus of this review was to examine the effectiveness of the current research on three common interventions including video modeling, the modified intensive toilet training method (MITTM), and parent-delivered toilet training for increasing in-toilet voiding in children with ASD. Nine single-subject design studies were identified from 2009 to 2019. The overall results of the toilet training intervention studies have shown the procedures reviewed to be effective in increasing in-toilet voiding. Future research should focus on replicating and expanding these interventions, but also combining these interventions to see if the effects would produce more positive results for children with ASD and toileting issues.

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