Part #14- General Education Teachers’ Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders in the General Education Classroom
NASET ADHD SERIES
This issue of NASET’s ADHD series was written by Dr. Roben Wallace Taylor and Dr. Ravic P. Ringlaben. It comes from their recent Fall 2013 publication in the peer reviewed journal, The Journal of the American Academy of Special Education Professionals. Their study was an investigation of general education teachers’ knowledge and attitudes regarding students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD). Of interest were (a) the extent of teachers’ knowledge about characteristics of AD/HD; (b) the extent of teachers’ knowledge of teacher skills appropriate for educating students with AD/HD; and (c) the extent of teachers’ willingness to accommodate students with AD/HD. There was an initial assessment of teachers’ knowledge and attitudes (pretest) followed by a workshop designed to increase teachers’ knowledge and improve their attitudes. An additional assessment of their knowledge and attitudes (posttest) was then administered. Results and implications for future research are discussed within this article.
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TEACHERS’ KNOWLEDGE OF AND WILLINGNESS TO MAKE ACCOMMODATIONS FOR STUDENTS WITH ATTENTION DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER INSTRUMENT
Directions: Please answer the following statements by putting an X in the blank that best describes you.
You are: _______Male ________Female
Your ethnic background is
_____African American ____Caucasian/Non-Hispanic
Your years of teaching experience range between:
_____ 1-5 years _____ 6-10 years _____ 11-15 _____ 16-20 years
Have you ever taught a student with AD/HD? _____ Yes _____No
Type(s) of Certification __________________________
Grades presently teaching: _____ (1-6) Elementary _____ (7-9) Junior High
_____ (10-12) High School
Directions: For each of the following items, please answer the following statements by circling either 1 (Never), 2 (Sometimes), 3 (Most of the time) 4 (Always)
Statement 1 2 3 4
- I am WILLING to change my classroom policies to 1 2 3 4
accommodate a student who breaks classroom rules.
2. I am Willing to change my normal teaching strategies to 1 2 3 4
accommodate a student who is inattentive and distractible.
3. I am WILLING to change my normal teaching
strategies to accommodate a student who blurts out answers and 1 2 3 4
4. I am WILLING to change my normal teaching strategies 1 2 3 4
to accommodate a student who talks excessively and often does
5. I am WILLING to change my normal teaching strategies 1 2 3 4
in order to accommodate a student who consistently shifts from
one activity to another.
6. I am WILLING to change my methods of assessment to 1 2 3 4
accommodate a student who often does not complete his work
because of an inability to stay focused on my classroom instruction.
Please answer the following items by circling the number that indicates your level of agreement (1 is equal to the LOWEST level of agreement).
Statement LOW HIGH
7. I am SKILLED at designing long-range plans that meet the 1 2 3 4
needs of my students with AD/HD.
8. I am SKILLED at appropriately pacing and timing the 1 2 3 4
presentation of content material for my students with AD/HD.
9. I am SKILLED at grouping for instruction so that the needs 1 2 3 4
of all my students are effectively met.
10. I am SKILLED at designing tests that effectively monitor 1 2 3 4
progress of students with AD/HD.
11. I am SKILLED at using individualized/different criteria 1 2 3 4
when evaluating the assignments and tests of students with AD/HD.
12. I am SKILLED at designing short-range plans that meet 1 2 3 4
the needs of my students with AD/HD.
13. I am SKILLED at adapting course content to meet the 1 2 3 4
needs of my students with AD/HD.
14. I am SKILLED at using frequent checks to monitor 1 2 3 4
the progress of my students with AD/HD.
15. I am SKILLED at providing individualized instruction 1 2 3 4
for students with AD/HD.
Directions: Please answer the following statements by circling either TRUE or FALSE.
16. A student with AD/HD has one or more learning disabilities. TRUE FALSE
17. A student with AD/HD can be taught more successfully after TRUE FALSE
being treated with medication.
18. Students with AD/HD cannot control their behavior in the TRUE FALSE
general education setting.
19. A student with AD/HD knows how to interact socially, but TRUE FALSE
cannot control his actions.
20. If a student can watch cartoons on Saturday morning and TRUE FALSE
pay attention, he probably does not have AD/HD.
21. Students with AD/HD, who are able to interact with their TRUE FALSE
teacher one on one, can behave in the general education classroom.
22. Students with AD/HD cannot do math problems as well TRUE FALSE
as students without AD/HD.
23. Students with AD/HD usually are not successful in college TRUE FALSE
24. Students with AD/HD break rules and regulations because TRUE FALSE
most of them just do not want to be compliant.
25. Students with AD/HD can only succeed in specially TRUE FALSE
designed classrooms equipped to accommodate their disorder.
26. Students with AD/HD do not respond to rewards and TRUE FALSE
punishments as do students without AD/HD.
27. Students with AD/HD often have no problems with TRUE FALSE
28. Students with AD/HD need to be referred for mental TRUE FALSE
29. Students with AD/HD need to be referred for medical TRUE FALSE
30. Children diagnosed with AD/HD usually outgrow their
AD/HD tendencies by late junior or senior high school. TRUE FALSE
Thank you for your participation in this study.
OUTLINE OF WORKSHOP
(3.5 Hours – Session 1)
A. Purpose of the workshop
1. Description of the study
2. Call for participants
3. Distribution of questionnaire
4. Directions for completing questionnaire
5. Explanation of the post-test questionnaire
6. Collection of pre-test questionnaire
B. What is AD/HD?
1. Prevalence of AD/HD
b. in the United States
c. mental health facilities
d. in general education and special education populations
2. Common ideas teachers have about students with AD/HD
3. Primary characteristics of students with AD/HD
d. examples of a, b, c
4. Secondary characteristics of students with AD/HD
a. cognitive characteristics
b. academic characteristics
c. social problems
II. Difficulties Teachers Face in Instructing Students with AD/HD
A.Teacher resistance to instruct students with disruptive and/or academic difficulties.
1. “Contagious behavior” effect
2. Teachers’ notion of student success
3. Accommodations, both academically and behaviorally
4. Teachers’ view of AD/HD
B. Teachers’ concern regarding the use of behavior modification procedures.
1. Philosophical objections
3. Ease of preparation to implement behavior modification
C. Teacher Isolation
1. Lack of support
2. Ill-prepared prior to the placement of students with AD/HD.
3. Assumptions regarding teacher commitment is often erroneous
4. “Good teachers always have orderly, quiet classroom.”
Question and answer discussion period
OUTLINE OF WORKSHOP
(3.5 Hours – Session II)
A. Review previous session’s topics (major issues of discussion)
B. Legislation impacting students with disabilities
1. PL 94-142
2. IDEA PL 105-17
3. Notice of Inquiry by U. S. Department of Education regarding AD/HD
4. ADD policy memorandum
6. Section 504
7. No Child Left Behind Act
8. Application to students with AD/HD
II. Type of Interventions Appropriate for Students with AD/HD
A. Medical interventions
1. General information regarding medications for students with behavioral/emotional problems
2. Stimulants and Ad/HD
3. Ethical and legal concerns regarding the use of medication for students with AD/HD
4. Need for collaborative roles in the medication process
B. School Based Interventions/Critical Features
1. Determine extent of need
3. Roles and responsibilities
4. Commitment to continuity of intervention efforts
5. Gradual transfer of intervention responsibility to general educators
6. Commitment to involve parents
7. Commitment and administrative support
8. Positive school climate
Question and answer discussion
OUTLINE OF WORKSHOP
(3.5 HOURS – SESSION III)
I. Problematic Issues to be Considered During Intervention Process
A. Defining target behavior
B. Varying behaviors of students with Ad/HD
C. Prioritizing behaviors
D. Complexity of intervention efforts
1. Illustrative case studies demonstrating dramatic differences in types of behavior that students exhibit in school setting
2. Establish an intervention model using case studies
II. Physical Environment Intervention
1. Grouping arrangements
2. Seating arrangements
3. Proximity control
4. Reducing distractions
B. Classroom environment
1. Scheduling subjects
2. Established, organized, predictable schedule
b. incorporating activity into class structure/lesson
C. Teacher organization
1. Modeling organized behavior
2. Using object placement routines
3. Teaching time estimation skills
III. Academic Interventions
A. Principles of Effective Teaching
1. Instructional cycle
2. Maximize student engagement in instruction
3. High rates of student success
4. Questioning which facilitates students learning
5. Managing student responses in a facilitative way
6. Corrective feedback
7. Appropriate pace
8. Organized content
B. Teaching considerations
1. Intervene academically first
2. Increase stimulating value of lesson
3. Use direct or computer-assisted instruction
4. Shorten length of assignments/provide more time to complete task
C. Specific academic modifications
1. Individual assignment sheets
2. Priority time sheets
3. Independent study
4. Strategy to promote student work productivity
a. illustrative example of cognitive-behavior theory
b. phases of an effective lesson structure
c. effective/ineffective praise
d. illustrate example of a content organizer
e. illustrate example of a content diagram
f. illustrate example of a study guide
5. Teaching and using study skills
IV. Behaviorally-based interventions
1. Power struggles
2. Escape/avoidance behaviors
B. Appropriate use of contingent feedback
1. Providing positive teacher attention
2. Effective and ineffective commands
C. Group contingencies
D. Individual contingency contracts
E. Setting up a Token Economy
F. An overview of social skills rating
A. Question/answer discussion
B. Teacher plans for using material presented for workshops ensure teacher understanding
What made you want to be a teacher?
- What do you like best about the teaching profession?
- What doubts and concerns do you have as a teacher?
What kinds of experiences have you had with students with AD/HD?
What is it like having students with AD/HD in your classroom?
- What are the advantages and disadvantages of having students with AD/HD in your classrooms?
Do your teaching strategies differ for students with AD/HD?
- How? In what ways?
If you found out on Monday that you were going to have a student with AD/HD in your class, what would you consider as your teaching responsibility for this student?
- Would there be any particular things that you would expect to do differently?
- In considering your goals and career as a teacher, what particular feelings do you have about being a teacher in a classroom that has students with AD/HD?