Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD)

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Accommodations /Modifications

ADHD-Building academic success:If human potential were determined at birth, we would have little need for schools. However, we know that environment plays a powerful role in individual growth. We create schools to develop that potential and broaden opportunity. Yet many children labeled at-risk--including those disabled by Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)--fail to thrive, or even survive, in current school environments-Read more.

Strategies for success: Many adults with ADHD have learned to compensate for their deficits by developing effective coping strategies and finding jobs that match their needs. For those adults who are not aware that they have ADHD, the knowledge and awareness of their disorder can help them learn to work around their difficulties and enjoy a more happy, productive, and satisfying life.

ADDitide: The healthy happy lifestyle magazine for people with ADD.

Workplace accommodations: ADD/ADHD is covered under the Americans With Disabilities Act and individuals with ADD/ADHD can be entitled to certain accommodations at work based on their needs.

Adaptations & accommodations for students with disabilities: For many students with disabilities—and for many without—the key to success in the classroom lies in having appropriate adaptations, accommodations, and modifications made to the instruction and other classroom activities-Read more...

Classroom Modifications for Students with ADD/ADHD: Several practical tips on accommodations and modifications in the classroom for students with ADHD

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Adults with ADHD

Adults with AD/HD: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood neuropsychiatric disorder affecting 3-10% of children that often remains unrecognized or "hidden" in adulthood.

ADDmirableWomen: An online community for women with ADD/ADHD (Attention Deficit Disorder). Information, resources, advice, and support.

Women and ADHD: Information and resources for women with ADHD.

General characteristics of the adult with ADD (without hyperactivity): Please keep in mind that this is a generalized overview of how characteristics and symptoms of ADD may present themselves in adults.

Symptom checklist : In conjunction with other diagnostic techniques, Dr Amen says he, "uses the following general adult ADD checklist to help further define ADD symptoms. No ADD adult has all of the symptoms, but if you notice a strong presence of more than 20 of these symptoms, there is a strong likelihood of ADD. Read more.

50 Tips for the non-medication treatment of ADHD: This list breaks down the treatment of ADHD into 50 separate steps.

Article on how ADHD can affect adults: About 5% of school-age children have ADHD, but this is a chronic condition, it doesn't go away, and what we see is that as many as two-thirds of children with ADHD will become adults with ADHD. Read more.

When adults have ADHD: There is a lot of information in the news about ADHD. Usually the news is about ADHD in children. Not as much is known about the way ADHD affects adults. ADHD is a mental health problem that is often overlooked in adults. Often adults with ADHD are diagnosed when they find out their children have ADHD. This is a health problem that may be inherited.

Other conditions associated with adult ADHD: Adults have lived longer than children, and thus have had more time to develop other psychiatric disorders. In children with AD/HD, the existence of a comorbid condition is correlated with greater likelihood that the symptoms will persist into adulthood.

How adult ADHD may affect marriage and parenting: AD/HD can affect many areas of one’s life. This is particularly true when the adult marries and has children.

What is ADD Coaching?ADD coaching is an ongoing partnership that helps individuals with ADD improve their quality of live by deepening their learning, improving their performance, and increasing their understanding of ADHD.

Symptoms of ADHD in adults: Adults with ADHD symptoms including distractibility, impulsivity, disorganization, poor time management, emotional sensitivity, relationship problems, and/or trouble managing money should take this adult ADHD test to learn more about the ways attention deficit shows up later in life.

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Special education advocacy : This page has links to dozens of articles, free books and newsletters and other resources on special education advocacy.

Advocacy articles : Successful advocacy depends on having accurate information and knowing how to use it. There are four sections in the Advocacy Library: Advocacy Articles, FAQs: Letters to Wrightslaw
Newsletter Archives and Advocacy Tips.

Advocacy article with general information : contains stories, articles, information and links on special education advocacy. A good article for parents. 

ADHD On-line Community : offers information and support on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. There are forums, articles of interest, editorials, links, and submission areas.

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Assessing adolescents and adults for learning disabilities :guidelines from Office of Disability Policy-Educational Testing Services. Good site to determine criteria for extended time on standardized tests.

CHADD assessment resources : links to articles, tests, podcasts, and checklists regarding the assessment of AD/HD.

Key components in assessment: Although some people seem to think that you can just tell from watching a child, arriving at such a conclusion requires a formal evaluation. Unfortunately, there are many different ways to assess AD/HD, and some assessment approaches are clearly more accurate and more cost-effective than others.

ADHD tests and assessmentsfull library of tests and assessment from ADDitude.

ADHD rating scale informationrating scale information from the ADHD Institute.

ADHD data and statistics: data and statistics as referenced by the CDC.

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Assistive Technology

What is assistive technology : Assistive Technology is an umbrella term that includes assistive, adaptive, and rehabilitative devices for people with disabilities and also includes the process used in selecting, locating, and using them. AT promotes greater independence by enabling people to perform tasks that they were formerly unable to accomplish, or had great difficulty accomplishing, by providing enhancements to, or changing methods of interacting with, the technology needed to accomplish such tasks.

Tools for living with learning disabilities: Tools help people work around their learning disabilities.

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Books and Publications

Learning Disabilities: Theories, Diagnosis, and Teaching Strategies - A comprehensive overview of this complex subject covering theoretical approaches within the field, procedures for assessing and evaluating students, skills in the art of clinical teaching, teaching methods and strategies, and requirements of special education laws. Also offers balanced coverage of both theories and teaching strategies with cases.

Overcoming Dyslexia - Yale neuroscientist Shaywitz demystifies the roots of dyslexia (a neurologically based reading difficulty affecting one in five children) and offers parents and educators hope that children with reading problems can be helped.

Learning Disabilities: A to Z - Corinne Smith, director of Syracuse University's Psychoeducational Teaching Laboratory, and Lisa Strick, a freelance writer, focus on honing the child's strength rather than dwelling on weaknesses. They offer useful strategies for working with children and provide resources to meet teachers' and parents' needs. Perhaps most important, they present several actual case studies and share valuable insights regarding these children and their parents.

Complete Learning Disabilities Handbook - Written by a master teacher with over 30 years of experience in both mainstreamed and special classes, the Handbook covers virtually every aspect of working with students with learning disabilities, from causes and assessment to classroom management and lesson planning.

The Myth of Laziness - Mel Levine isolates a group of kids--so-called "lazy" children who aren’t working up to their potential in school--and explores the causes of their low performance. Levine scoffs at the perception that any child is lazy, stating that "everybody yearns to be productive." These children, according to Levine, are simply experiencing "output failure" due to different neuro-developmental weaknesses.

Peterson’s Colleges with Programs with Learning Disabilities or AD/HD - Lists over 1,000 2 and 4 year colleges that welcome students with learning disabilities. Includes schools that offer services and comprehensive programs. CD-ROM and quick-reference chart provided.

Differentiating Instruction for Students with Learning Disabilities - Classroom-proven, up-to-date strategies that empower the teacher to target instructional modifications to the content, process, and products for students with learning disabilities in the general and the special education classroom.

Understanding Learning Disabilities : A Parent’s Guide and Workbook - A workbook in which parents can use worksheets and templates to do things like keep schedules, record observations, track phone calls, plan for meetings with teachers or specialists, and record test scores and teacher comments.

Learning Disabilities and Life Stories - This anthology is comprised of two major components: thirteen full-length, autobiographical essays written by persons with learning disabilities and five analytical chapters written by education and psychology scholars.

Pathways to Success: College Students with Learning DisabilitiesA  practical roadmap to college success.

Guilford publications on ADHD - In the academic sphere, Guilford is known for major handbooks and texts in clinical, developmental, and social and personality psychology.

A variety of books from -'s selection of books on ADHD.

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General article including causes: A good overview article on ADHD including causes, assessment and treatment.

The neurology of ADHD: The most recent models describing what is happening in the brains of people with Attention Deficit Disorder - ADD ADHD - suggest that several areas of the brain may be affected by the disorders.

Causes of ADHD: These pages provide information about Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder - ADHD/ADD including diagnosis, treatment, classroom management, parent education, behavior modification, communication and family relationships.

What causes ADHD:Health professionals stress that since no one knows what causes ADHD, it doesn't help parents to look backward to search for possible reasons. There are too many possibilities to pin down the cause with certainty. It is far more important for the family to move forward in finding ways to get the right help.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder-booklet:Over the last few decades, scientists have come up with possible theories about what causes ADHD. Some of these theories have led to dead ends, some to exciting new avenues of investigation.

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Symptoms: Symptoms are always present before the age of seven, but sometimes continue into adolescence. ADHD is seen more commonly in boys. Symptoms often become less severe in late teenage and in early adulthood, although it seems that people do not 'outgrow' ADHD, but learn to master strategies to compensate for the symptoms.

Cinical characteristics: Because adults are more socialized than children, and because some ADD/ADHD behaviors such as hyperactivity are less intense in adulthood, the clinical presentation of ADD/ADHD varies with age.

List of ADHD characteristics: ADD/ADHD manifests itself in many ways and may vary with the individual. Common symptoms may include, but are not limited to...

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ADD vs. ADHD: It used to be called Attention Deficit Disorder, or ADD. What are the differences?

ADHD and Temperament: This study was done to identify whether there is a correlation between personality type and ADHD (published in the Kansas Journal of Medicine.)

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Classroom Management

School-Wide Strategies for Managing - DEFIANCE / NON-COMPLIANCE : Students who are defiant or non-compliant can be among the most challenging to teach.

Educational implications of ADD/ADHD: The four fundamental intervention areas of their model are environmental management, instructional accommodations, student-regulated strategies and medical management, which are briefly covered in the paragraphs

Teaching tips for students with ADHD: helpful classroom list for professionals in the classroom with students with ADHD.

Checklist of activities for professionals: checklist of suggestions and activities to keep children with ADHD focused and on task in the classroom.

Improving consistency of performance: a variety of methods to use with children with ADHD to increase performance in the classroom.

Teaching children with ADHD:ADHD is a chronic disorder that can begin in infancy and extend through adulthood, having negative effects on a child's life at home, school, and within the community. It is conservatively estimated that 3 to 5% of our school- age population is affected by ADHD.

Increasing time on-task behavior : a list of techniques and suggestions to increase on time behavior for children with ADHD.

Lesson planning for students with ADHD: consider the various means of presentation of materials when working with students with ADHD.

Addressing impulsive behavior in the classroom  : a list of classroom management techniques for dealing with impulsive behaviors.

Improving social skills: a list of  social difficulties that may be exhibited by students with ADHD with suggestions for improving social interaction skills.

Helping the ADHD student with organization : a list of very worthwhile suggestions and techniques for helping children with ADHD get organized.

Teaching children with ADHD: good overview of classroom suggestions and techniques for working with children with ADHD.

Behavioral charts and forms-elementary level: charts and forms used to monitor and chart behavior for children with attention deficit hyperactive disorder.

Setting up your classroom for students with ADHD-elementary level : a list of practical suggestions and techniques for setting up a classroom for students with attention deficit hyperactive disorder on the elementary level.

Presenting lessons to middle school students with ADHD: consider the various means of presentation of materials when working with this age group.

Organizing adolescents with ADHD: a list of very worthwhile suggestions and techniques for helping secondary level students with ADHD get organized.

Adapting tests for students with ADHD:Explore ideas to modify tests for students with ADHD.

Suggested Classroom Interventions For Children With ADD & Learning Disabilities: Children with attention deficit disorder and/or learning disabilities can be a challenge for any classroom professional.  This page provides some practical suggestions that can be used in the regular classroom as well as the special education classroom.  By looking through a given list of interventions, a professional will be able to select one or more strategies that are suited to a specific child in a specific environment.

The Big List Of Classroom Management Resources: There are classroom management techniques tailored to elementary and secondary education, discipline ideas for new and experienced professionals, tips for handling special education, suggestions for getting organized, strategies for preventing behavior problems, sample classroom rules, and ways of creating a caring community.

ADHD Owner's Manual: This site, created by a medical doctor, includes information on educational and behavioral interventions, medication, and tips for professionals.

Tips for your students transitioning to college: The transition from high school to college can be difficult for students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders (AD/HD). However, with appropriate foresight and planning, it can be managed successfully.

 ADHD coaching has been defined as follows: from the CHADD website,, " Coaching is an intervention that complements medication and other non-pharmacologic alternatives. As a specialty within the broader field of coaching, ADHD coaching is a practical intervention that specifically targets the core impairments of ADHD such as planning, time management, goal setting, organization and problem solving."

ADHD Self-Service: Scroll down for links that provide information about Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder - ADHD/ADD including diagnosis, treatment, medications,and related morbidities.

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ADHD Basics : Do you find it hard to pay attention? Do you feel the need to move constantly during times when you shouldn't? Do you find yourself constantly interrupting? This brochure provides the basics to understand ADHD.

DSM definition: Scroll down to see the DSM definition of ADHD.

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Diagnosing ADD and ADHD: Everyone in a private practice setting who works with ADD ADHD children or adults is going to have their own opinion on how Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder - ADD or ADHD - should be diagnosed.

General ADHD booklet including diagnosis: AD/HD is one of the most commonly diagnosed behavioral disorders of childhood. The disorder is estimated to affect between 3 to 7 out of every 100 school-aged children [American Psychiatric Association (APA), 2000]. This makes AD/HD a major health concern.

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History of the Field

History and genetics of ADHD : The first clinical description of ADHD was reported in the British journal, Lancet, by Dr. George Still in 1902.  Dr. Still was a British physician treating children who noticed some of his patients were disinhibited and impulsive.

Timeline of the history of ADHD: a timeline explanation of the development of terminology and medications for ADHD over the years.

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Study on incidence : Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD, has become a common diagnosis among American children, but the true incidence of the condition remains in dispute.

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Medical Issues/Medications

Drugs used for adults with ADHD: - An overview of medications for adults with ADHD.

ADHD Medications: - Benefits and risks: Because ADHD is such a complex topic, Helpguide has divided its discussion into several parts. This section focuses on the controversial subject of Medications for ADHD, beginning with a very brief overview of the condition.

ADHD treatments: - Consumer-level information on ADHD treatments.

Long term outlook: - Long term outlook for children with ADHD in general.

Treatment in adults: - Brief description of the treatment of ADHD in adults.

Treatment options: - Overview of treatment options for ADHD/ADD.

Treatment plans: - Recommended steps in treatment of planning for ADHD/ADD.

Diet options: - Recent research shows that nourishing food not only makes a child healthier, it makes him emotionally more stable, and it improves school performance.

Behavioral treatment: - a general overview of a behavioral approach to improving children's behavior.

Parent information on medications: - Addresses parental fears and concerns regarding ADHD medications.

Managing ADHD medication: - Reflecting on the standards for using medications to treat children with ADHD.

Controversial treatments: - Evaluations that consist of a single checklist or ten minute discussions, will likely run the risk of mis-diagnosis of the disorder or in fact a misunderstanding of co- occurring problems that often present for children with ADHD.

Placebo effects: - A study shows some kids with ADHD may do just as well with half as much medicine when a placebo is added to their treatment.

From assessment to treatment: - How parents can develop a comprehensive plan to help a child with ADHD.

ADHD and vision: - Articles by optometrists and educators on attention deficits and vision.

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ADHD organizations: Seven organizations that provide support for those with ADD/ADHD.

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Overview and General Information

General overview-1: School counselors are often consultants for parents and professionals on problems that children and adolescents face. Attention deficit is one such problem.

General overview-2: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder is usually first diagnosed in children and adolescents. It is characterized by inappropriate degrees of inattention, impulsivity and/or hyperactivity. Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder are typically:


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Parent Information

An overview for parents: Early identification and proper treatment dramatically reduces the family, educational, behavioral, and psychological problems experienced by individuals with ADHD.

Home-school collaboration: Collaboration and communication between home and school facilitate successful education for all students. For students with ADHD, it is essential to have effective parent-professional communication, collaboration and consistency on goals and rewards across settings, and collaborative planning and monitoring of interventions.

Questions to ask when selecting a professional to assess or treat ADHD: a series of very importnat questions for parents to ask any professional involved in the treatment or education of a child with ADHD.

Talking to children about their ADHD: Parents who raise children with attention and learning problems, and professionals who teach them, often benefit from a wealth of information about these subjects. They have become active consumers: reading current research, seeking out new books and articles, attending lectures given by experts in the field. However, a significant omission is often made. They sometimes neglect to pass on what they know to those who need it most: the children.

How to evaluate for AD/HD: When you or your child is experiencing difficulties that suggest that he or she may have AD/HD, there are concrete steps that may be taken on the path to diagnosis.

ADHD support for parents: Why support for parents of children with ADHD matters.

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Prevalence and assessment : from the American Academy of Pediatrics, this research article covers the prevalence and assessment of attention deficit hyperactive disorder.

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