The NASET and AASEP Board Certification in Special Education (BCSE) Program is comprised of a comprehensive compilation of 58 Units of study broken down into 7 specific Modules. At the end of each Module, there is a multiple choice examination which must be successfully completed with a grade of at least 80% to move on to the next Module. Upon successful completion of each Module, you will immediately be able to view/save or print a professional certificate of recognition. Modules are enabled for review one at a time in a sequential order, per the listing below.
Overview of Legal Issues in Special Education
Unit 1. Special Education Today: Basic Principles of Special Education
Video Lecture and PowerPoint Presentation - Special education is instruction that is specially designed to meet the unique needs of children who have disabilities. It is provided in public schools at no cost to the parents and can include special instruction in various types of educational settings. Special education is mandated for students with disabilities by a federal law, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (or IDEIA). This law gives eligible children with disabilities the right to receive a free appropriate public education (FAPE). More than 6 million children ages 3 through 21 receive special education and related services each year in the United States. This lecture focuses on an overview of terms and concepts of importance in special education.
Areas covered include:
- Definition of Special Education
- Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
- Exceptional Children
- Disability Classifications
- Prevalence of Children Receiving Special Education
- Gender Issues in Special Education
- Overview of Early Intervention and Preschool Special Education
- The 10 Basic Steps of the Special Education Process
- Using Appropriate First Person Language
Supplemental Readings - In this section, you will have the opportunity to reinforce concepts presented in Unit 1, including: IDEA Parent Guide, Job Outlook - Special Education Teachers, Key Terms to Know in Special Education, Overview of Special Education Law, Special Education Literature Review, The Special Education Process under IDEIA 2004, and Understand Special Education Process.
Supplemental Videos - In addition to the video lecture presentation in Unit 1, the following supplemental videos are available to enhance the concepts learned: Introduction to Special Education, What is Special Education, A Day in the Life of a Special Education Teacher, Special Education Teacher, Career Video, and Introduction to Special Education.
Unit 2. History of Special Education and the Law
Video Lecture and PowerPoint Presentation - Generally, over the years, special education has been restructured and transformed by legislation. Today, we have a federal special education law, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). IDEA was originally enacted by Congress in 1975 to ensure that children with disabilities have the opportunity to receive a free appropriate public education, just like other children. An “appropriate” education differs for each child with a disability because it is based on his or her individual needs. IDEA specifies in some detail how school systems and parents are to plan the education that each child receives so that it is appropriate—meaning, responsive to the child’s needs. The plan that parents and school staff develop is documented in writing through the individualized education program (IEP), which the school is then responsible for carrying out. IDEA has been revised many times since 1975 and it remains the cornerstone of special education. But how did we get to this law? The path was not an easy one. This lecture takes teachers through the history of special education and how state and federal laws were enacted.
Topics covered include:
- Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas
- 14th Amendment of the US Constitution
- 1960s—What happened during that time regarding special education?
- Parc v. Commonwealth of PA
- Mills vs. Board of Education of D.C.
- Section 504 of the Vocational Rehabilitation Act
- P.L. 94-142
- Six key provisions of P.L. 94-142
- Key points about P.L. 99-457
- Definition of Reauthorization
- Today under IDEIA—What do we know?
Supplemental Readings - In this section, you will have the opportunity to reinforce concepts presented in Unit 2, including: IDEA - 35 Years of History and Legislative and Litigation History of Special Education.
Supplemental Videos - In addition to the video lecture presentation in Unit 2, the following supplemental videos are available to enhance the concepts learned: Brown vs Board of Education (PBS), Digital Storytelling: PARC vs. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and Celebrating 35 Years of IDEA.
Unit 3. Understanding the Meaning of a “Free Appropriate Public Education” (FAPE)
Video Lecture and PowerPoint Presentation - Prior to the passage of P.L. 94-142, many students with disabilities were excluded from school entirely, and many others were offered an education that was not appropriate to their needs. When P.L. 94-142 was enacted in 1975, it required that States submit plans that assured all students with disabilities the right to a free appropriate public education (FAPE). Today, IDEIA requires that all States demonstrate that they have in effect “a policy that assures all children with disabilities the right to a free appropriate public education.” But what really is a FAPE? What’s mandated in order to provide FAPE to all children receiving special education? The focus of this course will be to discuss in detail a free appropriate public education.
Topics covered include:
- Introduction to FAPE
- Definition of FAPE
- “Free”--Education Be At No Cost To The Parent
- Hendrick Hudson District Board of Education v. Rowley
- Educational Benefit
- Cadillac v. Chevrolet argument
- Best v. Appropriate
- Defining An “Appropriate” Education
- Graduation and FAPE
Supplemental ReadingsIn this section, you will have the opportunity to reinforce concepts presented in Unit 3, including: Q & A about FAPE, and Hendrick Hudson District Board of Education v. Rowley
Supplemental VideosIn addition to the video lecture presentation in Unit 3, the following supplemental videos are available to enhance the concepts learned: Did You Know? - Free Appropriate Public Education and Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE).
Unit 4. Related Services in Special Education
Video Lecture and PowerPoint Presentation - Related services help children with disabilities benefit from their special education by providing extra help and support in needed areas, such as speaking or moving. Related services are defined in IDEIA as: “transportation, and such developmental, corrective and other supportive services….as may be required to assist a child with a disability to benefit from special education.” Related services must be provided to all eligible children in special education. But, just because a child is in special education doesn’t mean he/she will be eligible for related services. IDEIA includes a long list of related services that schools must provide to students who need them to receive a meaningful education. It is important to note, however, that this list does not include all of the services which a school district may be required to provide. The focus of this course will be to address some of the most common related services offered to children with disabilities. After taking this course you should understand the following:
- Overview of related services
- Speech and language therapy
- Psychological and Counseling Service
- Occupational and Physical Therapy (OT/PT)
- Orientation and Mobility Services
- Medical Services
- School health service
- Parent counseling
- Travel training
Supplemental Readings - In this section, you will have the opportunity to reinforce concepts presented in Unit 5, including: Overview of Related Services
Supplemental Videos - In addition to the video lecture presentation in Unit 5, the following supplemental videos are available to enhance the concepts learned: Speech and Language Therapy in Special Schools, Occupational therapists enable children to participate in activities at home and in school, PT in Schools, Orientation & Mobility-Lighthouse Central Florida, and Travel Training.
Unit 5. Making Sense of Individualized Education Programs (IEPs)
Video Lecture and PowerPoint Presentation - The centerpiece of IDEIA is the requirement that each student receiving special education and related services has an individualized education program (IEP). The contents of the IEP are designed to provide a road map for the child's educational programming during the course of the coming year. The IEP is the primary mechanism for ensuring that students receive an appropriate education. An IEP summarizes all the information gathered concerning the student, sets the expectations of what the student will learn over the next year and describes the special education and related services the student will receive. The development of an IEP is a collaborative effort between the LEA and parents to ensure that a student's special education program will be appropriate and meet his or her individual unique needs. IDEIA spells out very clearly the required components of an IEP. This course will address the required components of an IEP under IDEIA.
Topics covered include:
- The child's present levels of educational performance
- A statement of measurable annual goals
- A description of how the child's progress toward meeting the annual goals will be measured
- A statement of the special education placement, related services, and assistive technology services to be provided.
- An explanation of the extent, if any, to which the child will not participate with children without disabilities
- A statement of any accommodations or modifications in the administration of state or district-wide assessments of student achievement
- The projected date for the beginning of the services and modifications, and the anticipated frequency, location, and duration of those services and modifications.
- Transition Services
- Transfer Rights at the Age of Majority
Finally, the course will address issues involving early intervention and the requirements of Individualized Family Service Plans (IFSPs).
Supplemental Readings - In this section, you will have the opportunity to reinforce concepts presented in Unit 4, including: Individualized Education Programs (IEP) and Understanding Individualized Education Programs.
Supplemental Videos - In addition to the video lecture presentation in Unit 4, the following supplemental videos are available to enhance the concepts learned: What is an IEP, The IEP Team Process: A Framework for Success, Developing the Individualized Education Plan (IEP), and Assistive Technology in the Classroom.
Unit 6. Least Restrictive Environment and Extended School Year Services
Video Lecture and PowerPoint Presentation - Placement decisions for students with disabilities are to be based on an existing IEP, and therefore must be made after the development of the IEP. IDEIA contains several requirements governing the location of the educational placement. Perhaps most important, IDEIA requires that children with disabilities must be educated with those without disabilities to the maximum extent appropriate. This requirement applies to nonacademic activities and extracurricular activities, for example, lunch and recess, as well as academic activities. The requirement that “children with disabilities must be educated with those without disabilities to the maximum extent appropriate” is referred to as the Least Restrictive Environment or the LRE. The least restrictive environment is composed of various continuums of placements that range from least restrictive to most restrictive. This NASET course will focus on the least restrictive environment (LRE). After taking this course, you should understand the following:
- Overview of LRE
- Inclusion Classrooms
- Resource Rooms
- Special Education Classroom (Self-Contained Classrooms)
- Residential Facilities
- Hospital and Homebound Instruction
- Determining Placement of a Student
- Annual Reviews
- Changing Educational Placements
- Extended School Year Services
Supplemental Readings - In this section, you will have the opportunity to reinforce concepts presented in Unit 6, including: Least Restrictive Environment and Integrated Co-Teaching (ICT): The Definition and Benefits.
Supplemental Videos - In addition to the video lecture presentation in Unit 6, the following supplemental videos are available to enhance the concepts learned: The Least Restrictive Environment, What does the IDEIA say about the Least Restrictive Environment?, Extended School Year, IDEIA Basics: (LRE) Least Restrictive Environment, Least Restrictive Environment (LRE).
Assessment in Special Education
Unit 7. Methods of Assessment in Special Education
Assessment in special education is a process that involves collecting information about a student for the purpose of making decisions. Assessment is primarily a problem-solving process. There are many different types of assessment methods used in the assessment process. Special educators need to be very aware of the various methods of assessment used in special education, along with their specific advantages and disadvantages. This course will provide you with the most common types of assessment methods. After taking this course, you should understand the following:
- Definition of assessment
- Types of observations
- Observational techniques
- Advantages and disadvantages of observations
- Types of interviews
- Advantages and disadvantages of interviews
- Portfolio assessments
- Types of portfolio assessments
- Norm-referenced tests
- Criterion-references tests
Supplemental Readings - In this section, you will have the opportunity to reinforce concepts presented in Unit 7, including: Methods of Assessment.
Supplemental Videos - In addition to the extensive video presentations in the main unit the following supplemental videos are available to enhance the concept and include Norm - and Criterion-Referenced Tests, Criterion and Norm Reference Tests - What's the Difference, Criterion and Norm Referenced Scoring, Reliability and Validity in Student Assessment, Reliability and Validity, Observation Assessment, and Introduction to Special Education Assessments.
Unit 8. Statistics Used in Special Education
Video Lectures and PowerPoint Presentations- Statistics play a vital role in the understanding of disability awareness. Although there are numerous reasons to know statistics, of primary importance to special educators is that without a proper understanding of it, you cannot interpret test results. When large sets of data are being presented, it is important that they be organized in a fashion that makes some sense to the reader. In special education, this is done through methods known as descriptive statistics. Statistics summarize and describe data. In this course, we discuss basic descriptive statistics used every day in special education. After taking this course, you should be able to understand (and in some cases be able to calculate) the following:
- Measures of central tendency (mean, median, and mode)
- Frequency distributions
- Standard deviation
- Normal curve
- Purpose of the normal curve in special education
- Application of normal curve in special education
Supplemental Readings - In this section you will have the opportunity to reinforce concepts presented in this unit including further clarification on Statistics.
Supplemental Videos - In addition to the video lecture presentation in Unit 8, the following supplemental videos are available to enhance the concepts learned: Statistics Used in Special Education, Statistics - How to make a frequency distribution, What is the standard deviation, Normal Distribution - Explained Simply, and What Is Correlation?
Unit 9. Identification, Referral, Evaluation, & Classification of Students with Disabilities
Video Lectures and PowerPoint Presentations- The identification and evaluation of a child with a suspected disability is a critical step in the special education process. Under IDEIA 2004, each local education agency (LEA) must establish procedures by which children in need of special education and related services are identified. These are known as “Child Find” efforts. States are left to develop their own identification procedures, but IDEIA requires an active effort to identify children in need of special education services. Evaluation procedures determine “whether the child has a disability and the nature and extent of the special education and related services that the child needs.” The evaluation of a child for a suspected disability must be individualized, meaning that the procedures and methods of evaluation must address a student’s unique needs, rather than be a general assessment that can be used interchangeably with all students. The focus of this course will address the step-by-step process in the identification and evaluation of a child with a suspected disability. After taking this course, you should understand the following:
- Overview of the Evaluation of a Child with a Suspected Disability
- Indicators of Children Who May Have a Suspected Disability and Need an Evaluation
- How Students are Identified for an Evaluation for a Suspected Disability
- Child Study Teams (CST)
- Parental Consent
- Consent v. Agreement
- Evaluation Standards Under IDEA
- Multidisciplinary teams (MDT)
- Components of a Comprehensive Evaluation
- Eligibility Meetings
- Parent Refusal to Consent
- Annual and Triennial Reviews
Supplemental ReadingsIn this section, you will have the opportunity to reinforce concepts presented in Unit 9, including: Evaluating Children for Disability, Parental Consent for Evaluations in Special Education, and Identification and Evaluations in Special Education.
Supplemental VideosIn addition to the extensive video presentations in the main unit the following supplemental videos are available to enhance the concept and include further information on Assessments and Special Education.
Unit 10. Scoring Terminology Used in Assessment
Video Lectures and PowerPoint Presentations-
Understanding the terminology used in scoring is critical when interpreting test scores. When doing the assessment of a child for a suspected disability, there will be many such terms of which you need to be aware and will calculate. It is important that when you are at committee meetings and having discussions with parents and administrators that you are able to not only report these scores but also understand what they mean. The focus of this course will be on scoring terminology used in assessment in special education. After taking this course, you should understand the following:
- Raw Scores
- Standard Scores
- z Scores
- Age Equivalents
- Grade Equivalents
Supplemental Readings - In this section, you will have the opportunity to reinforce concepts presented in Unit 10, including: Glossary of Testing, Standardized Assessment, Understanding Evaluation Terminology, and Understanding Test Scores.
Supplemental Videos - In addition to the video lecture presentation in Unit 10, the following supplemental videos are available to enhance the concepts learned: Percentiles - Introductory Statistics, Z-Scores and Percentiles: Crash Course Statistics, What is a Grade Equivalent Score? Why Do We Need z Scores?, and Standard Scores.
MODULE #3:Response to Intervention (Readings Module, not Video Lectures)
Unit 11. Basic Principles of RTI
The Responsiveness to Intervention (RTI) process is a multi-tiered approach to providing services and interventions to struggling learners at increasing levels of intensity. RTI can be used for making decisions about general, compensatory, and special education, creating a well-integrated and seamless system of instruction and intervention guided by child outcome data. RTI calls for early identification of learning and behavioral needs, close collaboration among teachers and special education personnel and parents, and a systemic commitment to locating and employing the necessary resources to ensure that students make progress in the general education curriculum. RTI is an initiative that takes place in the general education environment.
Unit 12. Why RTI Plays an Important Role in the Determination of Specific Learning Disabilities (SLD) under IDEA 2004
Response to Intervention offers the promise of “building better readers” through the provision of differentiated instruction based on data from ongoing assessments for all students in the early grades. That is, all students receive scientifically research based reading instruction and, most importantly, struggling readers receive additional instructional time and research based reading interventions within the structure and context of the general education classroom. In essence, RTI replaces the practice of “waiting to fail” with deliberate early intervention and prevention.
Unit 13. School Capacity to Adopt RTI
Before implementation of one of the many RTI models can begin in a district, several basic decisions must be made about the structure and components to be selected, as well as how students will move through the process.
Unit 14. Screening for “At-Risk” Students
The basic question in a screening measure is whether or not the student should be judged as “at risk.” For example, the school nurse who uses the Snellen eye chart (Snellen) wants a quick indicator of students who might have difficulty seeing from a distance. If a student has difficulty reading the eye chart, a referral is made for a more in-depth assessment. In a similar way, the classroom teacher uses a screening measure to identify students who meet the screening criteria for possible at-risk status. These students are then considered for a more in-depth assessment, such as monitoring their progress during the next six weeks with specific assessments.
Unit 15. Progress Monitoring in a RTI Model
Progress monitoring serves an important function in specific learning disabilities (SLD) determination. If applied rigorously, progress monitoring addresses the federal legal stipulation that students who are determined to have a disability have not benefited from general education instruction. If the student receives high-quality instruction, progress monitoring procedures can help school staff and parents determine the extent to which the student benefited.
Unit 16. Multi-tiered Service-Delivery Models
Much discussion continues surrounding the issues of how many tiers constitute an adequate intervention (O'Connor, Tilly, Vaughn & Marston). Most frequently, RTI is viewed as a three-tiered model, similar to those used for other service delivery practices, such as positive behavioral support. The three-tiered model is the structure we will discuss in this Unit.
Unit 17. Tier I Interventions
In the RTI framework, all students in Tier I receive high quality scientific, research based instruction from general education teachers in the core curriculum. The core curriculum provides the foundation for instruction upon which all strategic and intensive interventions are formulated. While Tier I instruction occurs in the general education setting, it is not necessarily grade level instruction. Instruction at Tier I includes all developmental domains such as behavioral and social development along with instruction in academic content areas.. At this phase, general education teachers match students’ prerequisite skills with course content to create an appropriate instructional match and use instructional strategies with fidelity that are evidence-based.
Unit 18. Tier II Interventions
Tier II intervention is for those students for whom Tier I instruction is insufficient and who are falling behind on benchmark skills and require additional instruction to achieve grade-level expectations. Although many variations of Tier II interventions are described in the research, in general, Tier II is small-group supplemental instruction (ratio of up to one teacher to five students, 1:5) provided by a specialist, tutor, or special education teacher to students who fail to make adequate progress in the general classroom. Tier II includes programs, strategies, and procedures designed and employed to supplement, enhance, and support Tier I instruction to all students.
Unit 19. Tier III Interventions
Intensive interventions at Tier III may either support and enhance instruction provided at Tier I and supported by Tier II, or be substituted for a portion of the Tier I and Tier II interventions if those interventions have been tried with increased frequency and duration and proven ineffective. Students at Tier III are those students who are performing significantly below standards and who have not adequately responded to high quality interventions provided at Tier I and Tier II.
Unit 20. Problem Solving in Making Decisions
Problem solving is a data-based decision making process that is used to identify needed interventions for students in Tiers I, II and III. Decisions are made by teams that are composed of individuals who are qualified to make the important educational decisions to help students succeed in school. As a general rule, the composition of a decision making team changes by adding additional specialists’ expertise as students move from tier to tier. When using problem solving or standard treatment protocol techniques, decision making teams should always include the student’s general education teacher(s) and parents. If districts choose to use existing teams, they may need to modify procedures to align with the problem solving steps discussed in this unit.
Unit 21. RTI Models in Special Education
Recent research has suggested the most productive model for improving outcomes for students with learning disabilities is one in which students’ instructional gaps are identified, progress relative to the gaps is monitored, and explicit and intensive instruction provided. A model requiring this level of intensity and individualization is typically best provided in special education.
Unit 22. Parent Involvement in the RTI Model
Parent involvement in a tiered service-delivery model, or any service-delivery system, should be characterized by consistent, organized, and meaningful two-way communication between school staff and parents with regard to student progress and related school activities. Through this communication, parents are enabled to play an important role in their child’s education by assisting in the learning and by being involved in decision making as it affects tier-level instruction to increase their child’s achievement.
Unit 23. Fidelity of Implementation
Fidelity of implementation is the delivery of instruction in the way in which it was designed to be delivered (Gresham, MacMillan, Boebe-Frankenberger, & Bocian). Fidelity must also address the integrity with which screening and progress-monitoring procedures are completed and an explicit decision-making model is followed. In an RTI model, fidelity is important at both the school level (e.g., implementation of the process) and the teacher level (e.g., implementation of instruction and progress monitoring).
Unit 24. Review System Requirements for Response to Intervention
Response to intervention assessment requires changes in the ways resources are used and a very close relationship between general and special education. General educators need to understand the approach and why all of their students need to be closely monitored—especially in the development of early academic skills. Special educators must understand the limitations of traditional assessment systems and adopt highly prescribed and systematic interventions. Most importantly, general and special educators need to work together to implement and maintain the system. This unit details the system requirements for RTI.
Understanding Students with Exceptionalities
Unit 25. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
Video Lectures and PowerPoint Presentations - Intellectual disability is a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning (reasoning, learning, problem solving) and in adaptive behavior, which covers a range of everyday social and practical skills. This disability originates before the age of 18. Intellectual disabilities are disorders that are usually present at birth and that negatively affect the trajectory of the individual’s physical, intellectual, and/or emotional development. Many of these conditions affect multiple body parts or systems. This lecture focuses on students with intellectual disabilities. Topics covered include:
- definition of intellectual disabilities
- adaptive behavior
- levels of intensities and support
- degrees of intellectual disabilities
- causes of intellectual disabilities
- Down Syndrome
- phenylketonuria (PKU)
- drugs and fetal alcohol syndrome
- perinatal and postnatal causes of intellectual disabilities
- characteristics of children with intellectual disabilities
- classroom management strategies.
Supplemental Readings - In this section, you will have the opportunity to reinforce concepts presented in Unit 11, including: Frequently Asked Questions on Intellectual Disability, Intellectual Disabilities, and What are Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (IDDs)?
Supplemental Videos - In addition to the video lecture presentation in Unit 11, the following supplemental videos are available to enhance the concepts learned: Intellectual Disabilities, Intellectual Disability: SEARCHing for Employment, Let's Talk About Intellectual Disabilities, College - possible for students with intellectual disabilities, and How much do you know about intellectual disabilities?
Unit 26. Learning Disabilities
Video Lectures and PowerPoint Presentations- “Learning disability” is a general term that describes specific kinds of learning problems. A learning disability can cause a person to have trouble learning and using certain skills. The skills most often affected are: reading, writing, listening, speaking, reasoning, and doing math. Many children have trouble reading, writing, or performing other learning-related tasks at some point. This does not mean they have learning disabilities. A child with a learning disability often has several related signs, and they don’t go away or get better over time. The signs of learning disabilities vary from person to person. Research suggests that learning disabilities are caused by differences in how a person’s brain works and how it processes information. This lecture focuses on students with learning disabilities. Topics covered include:
- definition of learning disabilities
- processing disorders
- visual processing
- auditory processing
- processing speed
- types of learning disabilities
- discrepancy formulas
- causes of learning disabilities
- characteristics of children with learning disabilities
- teaching strategies
Supplemental Readings - In this section, you will have the opportunity to reinforce concepts presented in Unit 12, including: The State of Learning Disabilities - 3rd Edition, Dyslexia in the Classroom, Learning Disabilities- NICHCY, and Overview of Learning Disabilities.
Supplemental Videos - In addition to the video lecture presentation in Unit 12, the following supplemental videos are available to enhance the concepts learned: Common Learning Disabilities, Learning Disabilities, What Are the Different Types?, Learning About Learning Disabilities, What is dyslexia?, The True Gifts of a Dyslexic Mind, What Is Dyscalculia, and Strategies for Teaching Students with Processing Disorders How to Read.
Unit 27. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Video Lectures and PowerPoint Presentations- ADHD stands for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, a condition with symptoms such as inattentiveness, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. ADHD is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood. It is usually first diagnosed in childhood and often lasts into adulthood. Children with ADHD may have trouble paying attention, controlling impulsive behaviors (may act without thinking about what the result will be), or be overly active.The symptoms differ from person to person. ADHD was formerly called ADD, or attention deficit disorder. Both children and adults can have ADHD, but the symptoms always begin in childhood. This lecture focuses on teaching students with ADHD. Topics covered include:
- definition of ADHD
- types of ADHD
- diagnosis of ADHD
- problems associated with ADHD
- treatment recommendations
- behavioral therapy
- educational interventions.
Supplemental ReadingsIn this section, you will have the opportunity to reinforce concepts presented in Unit 13, including: ADHD Fact Sheet, Identifying and Treating Children with ADHD, and Teaching Children with ADHD.
Supplemental VideosIn addition to the video lecture presentation in Unit 13, the following supplemental videos are available to enhance the concepts learned: Walk In My Shoes: ADHD, Everything You Need to Know About ADHD, Signs, Symptoms, and Treatment of ADHD in Children, ADD/ADHD | Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, ADHD in the Classroom: Management Strategies and Student Supports, and Helping Teens With ADHD Succeed After High School.
Unit 28. Emotional Disturbance (Emotional or Behavioral Disorders)
Video Lectures and PowerPoint Presentations-
Identification of students with emotional disturbance is not a simple, clear-cut task. Many variables enter into the identification process. Any or a combination of the behaviors listed may characterize a student with an emotional disturbance, but may also be exhibited by students in other disability categories. Emotional disturbance is an umbrella term for different, but related, social-emotional deficits and disorders. These significant mental health and/or behavior issues manifest as dysregulation in thoughts, feelings, and/or behaviors. Simply put, students with an emotional disturbance demonstrate extreme ranges of emotions and/or behaviors that, without the extreme nature, would be considered normal in all children and adolescents. Students with an emotional disturbance have less ability to regulate their emotions and/or behaviors. A great deal of research goes on every day, but to date, researchers have not found that any of these factors are the direct cause of behavioral or emotional problems. This lecture focuses on students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Topics covered include:
- overview of emotional disturbance (ED)
- definition of ED
- social maladjustment
- prevalence controversy
- gender features of students with ED
- age of identification of students with ED
- education of students with ED
Supplemental Readings - In this section, you will have the opportunity to reinforce concepts presented in Unit 14, including: Emotional Disturbance Evaluation Guidance, Emotional Disturbance from CPIR, Emotional Disturbance, and a Possible Emotional Disturbance Checklist.
Supplemental Videos - In addition to the video lecture presentation in Unit 14, the following supplemental videos are available to enhance the concepts learned: Individuals with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders Presentation, The IDEA's Special Education Categories: Emotional Disturbance, Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders and Referral to Special Education - Emotional Disturbance.
Unit 29. Autism Spectrum Disorders
Video Lectures and PowerPoint Presentations- Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability defined by diagnostic criteria that include deficits in social communication and social interaction, and the presence of restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities that can persist throughout life. Children with autism or one of the other disorders on the autism spectrum can differ considerably with respect to their abilities, intelligence, and behavior. Some children don’t talk at all. Others use language where phrases or conversations are repeated. Children with the most advanced language skills tend to talk about a limited range of topics and to have a hard time understanding abstract concepts. Repetitive play and limited social skills are also evident. Other common symptoms of a disorder on the autism spectrum can include unusual and sometimes uncontrolled reactions to sensory information. This lecture focuses on students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Topics covered include:
- definition of ASD
- prevalence of ASD
- possible causes of ASD
- educational programming for students with ASD
- characteristics of students with ASD
- Asperger Syndrome
- teaching students with ASD.
Supplemental Readings - In this section, you will have the opportunity to reinforce concepts presented in Unit 15, including: Autism and Autistic Disorders, Autism Fact Sheet, Autism Spectrum Disorder Comparison Brief, Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder, and a Comparison of the Diagnostic Criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder Across DSM-5, 1 DSM-IV-TR, 2 and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA).
Supplemental Videos - In addition to the video lecture presentation in Unit 15, the following supplemental videos are available to enhance the concepts learned: Apps for Autism, Animated Explanation of Autism, Autism — what we know (and what we don't know yet), The world needs all kinds of minds - Temple Grandin, and Autism Awareness Video: Diagnostic Criteria for Autism.
Unit 30. Communication Disorders
Video Lectures and PowerPoint Presentations - There are many kinds of speech and language disorders that can affect children. These areas are reflected in how “speech or language impairment” is defined by the nation’s special education law, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, or IDEA, defines the term “speech or language impairment” as follows: “Speech or language impairment means a communication disorder, such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.” Speech and language skills develop in childhood according to fairly well-defined milestones. Parents and other caregivers may become concerned if a child’s language seems noticeably behind (or different from) the language of same-aged peers. This may motivate parents to investigate further and, eventually, to have the child evaluated by a professional. This lecture focuses on students with communication disorders (speech and language impairments). Topics covered include:
- definition of a speech and language impairment
- differences between speech versus language
- types of speech disorders
- characteristics of speech disorders
- language disorders
- characteristics of language disorders
- causes of communication disorders
- teaching strategies for students with communication disorders
Supplemental Readings - In this section, you will have the opportunity to reinforce concepts presented in Unit 16, including: Specific Language Impairment, Speech and Language Impairments, and Voice, Speech and Language.
Supplemental Videos - In addition to the video lecture presentation in Unit 16, the following supplemental videos are available to enhance the concepts learned: Speech Language Pathology: Speech and Language Impairments, Understanding language disorders, and Expressive and Receptive Language. Speech and Language Disorders. Childhood Speech and Language Delays, and Teachers TV: Speech and Language Strategies.
Unit 31. Traumatic Brain Injury
Video Lectures and PowerPoint Presentations- This Unit will provide teachers with an overview of TBI. A traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an injury to the brain caused by the head being hit by something or shaken violently. This injury can change how the person acts, moves, and thinks. A traumatic brain injury can also change how a student learns and acts in school. The signs of brain injury can be very different depending on where the brain is injured and how severely. Although TBI is very common, many medical and education professionals may not realize that some difficulties can be caused by a childhood brain injury. Often, students with TBI are thought to have a learning disability, emotional disturbance, or an intellectual disability. As a result, they don’t receive the type of educational help and support they really need. Topics covered in this lecture include:
- educational Definition of Traumatic Brain Injury
- Types of TBI—Open Head Injury
- Types of TBI—Closed Head Injuries
- Causes of TBI
- Deficits Resulting from TBI
- Educational Concerns for Students with TBI
- Classroom Management Strategies.
Supplemental Readings - In this section, you will have the opportunity to reinforce concepts presented in Unit 17, including: Guide to Writing about TBI in News and Social-Media, Pediatric TBI, TBI in Children, TBI - A Guide for Patients, and TBI - Report to Congress.
Supplemental Videos - In addition to the video lecture presentation in Unit 17, the following supplemental videos are available to enhance the concepts learned: Concussion / Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI), Introduction to Traumatic Brain Injury, Understanding Traumatic Brain Injury, TBI or Traumatic Brain Injury, Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) in Kids, and A brain injury is like a fingerprint, no two are alike.
Unit 32. Orthopedic Impairments
Video Lectures and PowerPoint Presentations- Children with orthopedic impairments (OI) are those whose physical limitations interfere with school attendance or learning to such an extent that they require special services, training, equipment, materials or facilities. Under IDEIA, these are children classified with Orthopedic Impairments. Orthopedic impairments are also referred to as “physical disabilities”. Orthopedic impairments involve physical disabilities which could affect the academic process of a student. The specific characteristics of an individual who has an orthopedic impairment will depend on the specific disease and its severity, as well as additional individual factors. The primary distinguishing characteristic of children with physical disability is physical limitations or health problems. Orthopedic impairments are characterized by physical disabilities that significantly affect a student’s academic functioning in the classroom. This lecture will focus on stuents with orthopedic impairments. Topic covered include:
- overview of OI
- definition of OI
- neuromotor impairments
- cerebral palsy
- spina bifida
- muscular dystrophy
- other types of OI
- the impact of learning on students with O
- teaching students with OI.
Supplemental ReadingsIn this section, you will have the opportunity to reinforce concepts presented in Unit 18, including: Orthopedic Impairments - Eligibility, Orthopedic Impairments – Overview Orthopedic Impairment - Fact Sheet, Teaching Strategies Orthopedic Impairments, and Teaching Students with Orthopedic Impairments.
Supplemental VideosIn addition to the video lecture presentation in Unit 18, the following supplemental videos are available to enhance the concepts learned: The IDEA's Special Education Categories: Orthopedic Impairment, TALK TOME | Physical Disability Awareness, Orthopedic Impairment Video, Orthopedic Impairments, Orthopedic Impairment Presentation 6Orthopedic Impairment Video, A brain injury is like a fingerprint, no two are alike.
Unit 33. Special Topic: Gifted and Talented Students
Video Lectures and PowerPoint Presentations- According to the National Association for Gifted Children, “children are gifted when their ability is significantly above the norm for their age. Giftedness may manifest in one or more domains such as; intellectual, creative, artistic, leadership, or in a specific academic field such as language arts, mathematics or science…It is important to note that not all gifted children look or act alike. Giftedness exists in every demographic group and personality type. It is important that adults look hard to discover potential and support gifted children as they reach for their personal best.” There is no standard global definition of what constitutes a gifted student. Multiple definitions of giftedness are used by different groups. Most of these definitions select the students who are the most skilled or talented in a given area, e.g., the students with the most skill or talent in music, language, logical reasoning, or mathematics. Being gifted and talented does not fall into one of the 13 classifications of special education, however, these children are still considered “exceptional children”. The focus of this NASET video lecture will be on learners with special gifts and talents. Topics covered include:
- Definition of gifted and talented
- Bright versus gifted students
- Key points on giftedness
- Teaching strategies for gifted students
Supplemental Readings - In this section, you will have the opportunity to reinforce concepts presented in Unit 19, including: Definitions, Models, and Characteristics of Gifted Students, Gifted Students, Gifted Students and Perfectionism, and the term "gifted child" from teachers' view.
Supplemental Videos - In addition to the video lecture presentation in Unit 19, the following supplemental videos are available to enhance the concepts learned: Example in the classroom, Gifted, creative and highly sensitive children, Why gifted may not be what you think, The stigmas of giftedness, Gifted children documentary, and Common characteristics of gifted children.
Unit 34. Special Topic: Early Intervention (Birth to age 3) and Preschool (Early Childhood) Special Education
Video Lectures and PowerPoint Presentations- In 1986, Congress created a nationwide incentive for states to implement coordinated systems of early intervention services for infants and toddlers with disabilities and their families by enacting P.L. 99-457. This is currently known as Part C of IDEIA. Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act provides financial assistance to states for the purpose of providing services to infants and toddlers (age birth through two) with disabilities. The purpose of these services is to enhance the development of infants and toddlers with disabilities and to minimize their potential for developmental delay. This lecture focuses on the importance of assessment and education in the birth to 5-year-old population. After listening to this lecture, you should understand the following:
- Overview and purpose of early intervention
- Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act
- Eligibility criteria for early intervention services
- Evaluation of infants and toddlers for early intervention services
- Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP)
- Purpose of the initial IFSP process
- Notice required to families for an IFSP meeting
- Timeline corresponding with an IFSP
- Contents of an IFSP
- Early intervention services available to infants and toddlers
- IFSP Reviews
- Transition from early intervention to preschool settings
- Overview of preschool assessment
- The challenge of preschool assessment
- Working with families
Supplemental Readings - In this section, you will have the opportunity to reinforce concepts presented in Unit 20, including: IFSP vs IEP, IFSP, and Overview of Early Intervention.
Supplemental Videos - In addition to the video lecture presentation in Unit 20, the following supplemental videos are available to enhance the concepts learned: Introduction to Early Intervention, What Is Early Intervention in Virginia, Early Intervention, and Early Intervention for Children | Child Development.
Special Education Eligibility (Readings Module no Video)
Unit 35. Overview of Special Education and Eligibility Procedures
At the conclusion of the referral process to the Individual Education Program (IEP) Committee, an individual evaluation on the student will take place. This can only occur if the parent/guardian has given written permission. This evaluation will involve formal tests, informal assessment measures, observations, interviews as well as other assessment measures deemed necessary by the assessment team. This will help the school determine whether the student has a possible disability and whether special services are required. The evaluation will also attempt to determine unrelated factors to the disability are affecting the student in school. The results of the evaluation will be used as a guide to develop the student’s educational program. It will determine whether adjustments will have to be made to the student’s educational program.
Unit 36. Autism
Autism is “a developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, usually evident before age 3 that adversely affects a student’s educational performance. Other characteristics often associated with autism are engagement in repetitive activities and stereotyped movements, resistance to environmental change or change in daily routines, and unusual responses to sensory experiences. The term does not apply if a student’s educational performance is adversely affected because the student has an emotional disturbance”.
Unit 37. Deaf-Blindness
Deaf-blindness refers to concomitant hearing and visual impairments, the combination of which causes such severe communication and other developmental and educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for students with deafness or students with blindness.
Unit 38. Developmental Delay
Students aged 3 through 9 experiencing developmental delays. The term student with a disability for students aged 3 through 9 may, at the discretion of the State and LEA and in accordance with Section 300.313, include a student:
- Who is experiencing developmental delays, as defined by the State and as measured by appropriate diagnostic instruments and procedures, in one or more of the following areas: physical development, cognitive development, communication development, social or emotional development, or adaptive development
- Who, by reason thereof, needs special education and related services.
Unit 39. Emotional Disturbance
Under IDEA, an Emotional Disturbance (ED) is defined as:
A condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a student's educational performance:
- (a) An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors.
- (b) An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers.
- (c) Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances.
- (d) A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression.
- (e) A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems.
The term includes schizophrenia. The term does not apply to students who are socially maladjusted, unless it is determined that they have an emotional disturbance.
Unit 40. Hearing Impairment
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) includes "hearing impairment" and "deafness" as two of the categories under which students with disabilities may be eligible for special education and related services programming. While the term "hearing impairment" is often used generically to describe a wide range of hearing losses, including deafness, the regulations for IDEA define hearing loss and deafness separately.
Unit 41. Specific Learning Disabilities
"(i) General. The term means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations, including conditions such as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia.
"(ii) Disorders not included. The term does not include learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, of intellectual disability, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage.
Unit 42. Intellectual Disability
According to IDEA, Intellectual Disability is defined as:
..significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period, that adversely affects a student's educational performance.
Unit 43. Multiple Disabilities
Under IDEA, Multiple Disabilities:
...means concomitant [simultaneous] impairments (such as mental retardation-blindness, mental retardation-orthopedic impairment, etc.), the combination of which causes such severe educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in a special education program solely for one of the impairments.
Unit 44. Orthopedic Impairment
Under IDEA, orthopedic impairment:
“means a severe orthopedic impairment that adversely affects a student's educational performance. The term includes impairments due to the effects of congenital anomaly (e.g., clubfoot, absence of some member, etc.), impairments due to the effects of disease (e.g., poliomyelitis, bone tuberculosis, etc.), and impairments from other causes (e.g., cerebral palsy, amputations, and fractures or burns that cause contractures)”
Unit 45. Other Health Impairments
According to IDEA, an Other Health Impairment means:
..lhaving limited strength, vitality or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli, that results in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment, that is due to chronic or acute health problems such as asthma, attention deficit disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, diabetes, epilepsy, a heart condition, hemophilia, lead poisoning, leukemia, nephritis, rheumatic fever, and sickle cell anemia; and adversely affects a student's educational performance.
Unit 46. Speech and Language Impairments
Under IDEA, a Speech or Language Impairment is defined as:
....a communication disorder, such as stuttering, impaired articulation, language impairment, or a voice impairment that adversely affects a student's educational performance.
Unit 47. Traumatic Brain Injury
Under IDEA, Traumatic Brain Injury is:
...an acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a student's educational performance. The term applies to open or closed head injuries resulting in impairments in one or more areas, such as cognition; language; memory; attention; reasoning; abstract thinking; judgment; problem-solving; sensory, perceptual, and motor abilities; psychosocial behavior; physical functions; information processing; and speech. The term does not apply to brain injuries that are congenital or degenerative, or to brain injuries induced by birth trauma
Unit 48. Visual Impairment
Visual impairment including blindness means:
....an impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a student's educational performance. The term includes both partial sight and blindness.
Critical Concepts in Special Education (Part1)
Unit 49. Discipline of Students with Disabilities
Video Lecture and PowerPoint Presentation - In 1997, IDEA added explicit new provisions regarding the discipline of students with disabilities. IDEIA has kept these provisions and added new requirements for the discipline of children with disabilities. These provisions were intended to protect the rights of children with disabilities and their parents, while at the same time address the concerns of school administrators and teachers regarding school safety and order. They were also intended to help schools respond appropriately to a child's behavior and promote the use of appropriate behavioral interventions to prevent troubling behavior from recurring. IDEIA permits school personnel to consider any unique circumstances on a case-by-case basis when determining whether a change of placement is appropriate for a child with a disability. The same discipline may not be appropriate for all students, even students involved in the same incident. The focus of this lecture will be to address the discipline of students with disabilities. Topics covered include:
- Discipline in General
- Case by Case Basis
- Short-Term Suspension
- Long-Term Suspensions
- Manifestation Determination Hearings
- Medications Associated with Children with Emotional and Behavioral Disabilities
- Functional Behavioral Assessments (FBA)
- Behavior Intervention Plans (BIP)
- Special Circumstances
- Challenging a Manifestation Determination Decision
Supplemental Readings - In this section, you will have the opportunity to reinforce concepts presented in Unit 49, including: Discipline and Dangerous Students with Disabilities, Discipline of Students with Disabilities - (Giuliani), Discipline of Students with Disabilities - (P&A), Quick Guide: School Discipline for Special Education Students, and Student Discipline for Students with Disabilities.
Supplemental Videos - In addition to the video lecture presentation in Unit 49, the following supplemental videos are available to enhance the concepts learned: Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA) Instructions, Conducting an FBA and Creating a BIP, Manifestation Determination Reviews – RTSC, Discipline for Children with Disabilities, and Legal Brief: Suspensions, Expulsions, and Manifestation Determinations, and School Law Express Webinar: Special Education Law and Discipline
Unit 50. Special Education Mediation
Video Lecture and PowerPoint Presentation - When parents and schools disagree on special education programs for students with disabilities (and negotiations in IEP team meetings have stalled) reaching a resolution can be difficult. However, parents may want to avoid a more adversarial due process hearing and/or want to attempt to resolve the matter without attorney involvement. In this type of situation, mediation is often considered. Mediation is a voluntary process that may be used to resolve disputes between school systems and the parents of a child with a disability. Mediation is entirely voluntary. While each mediation situation is unique, generally both parties to the mediation will come to the mediation session prepared to explain their own position and listen and respond to the other party’s position. A mediator helps the parties generate potential solutions and helps them communicate and negotiate.
Using a Question and Answer format, the following areas covering mediation in special education will be addressed:
- What is mediation?
- Why would parents and school districts want to use mediation as dispute resolution option?
- Does IDEIA afford mediation as an option for dispute resolution?
- What sets mediation apart from other special education meetings?
- What are the benefits of using mediation to resolve a dispute?
- How is mediation different from a due process hearing?
- What are the procedural requirements of mediation?
- How would school districts know what mediators are available?
- How are mediators selected?
- Does IDEIA address the impartiality of mediators?
- Who bears the cost of mediation?
- When and where are mediation sessions held?
- Who can attend a mediation session?
- Are attorneys’ fees reimbursed for mediation?
- What happens if the parties resolve the dispute through mediation?
- Must a written mediation agreement be kept confidential?
- How is a mediation agreement enforced?
- How does the use of mediation affect parents' other due process rights?
Supplemental Readings - In this section, you will have the opportunity to reinforce concepts presented in Unit 50, including: Considering Mediation for SPED Disputes,
Dispute Resolution Process Chart, IDEA and the Use of Mediation, Quick Guide to Dispute Resolution and SPED Mediation-US Dept. of Education.
Supplemental Videos - In addition to the video lecture presentation in Unit 50, the following supplemental videos are available to enhance the concepts learned: IDEA Basics: Mediation, Part I: Special Education Mediation, Part II: Special Education Mediation, Special Education Mediation for Families and Schools, Tops Tips for Mediation Success and Mediation Pros and Cons.
Unit 51. Due Process Hearings in Special Education
Video Lecture and PowerPoint Presentation - A due process complaint is an administrative hearing on a special education issue that is not agreed upon between a student’s parent (or an adult student), and the school district. An impartial hearing officer is assigned to hear testimony, receive evidence and render a decision. A due process complaint involves the proposal or refusal to initiate or change the identification, evaluation, or educational placement of a child with a disability or the provision of a free and appropriate public education (FAPE) to the child. Due process is one of the most complex areas of special education law. Knowing what to expect at a hearing is important for parents to understand in how to resolve a dispute about their child’s education. Because the laws are so complex and the results of the hearing are so important, parents should seriously consider hiring a special education advocate or attorney to guide them through the process and help them advocate for their child. Using a Question and Answer format, the following questions regarding due process hearings in special education will be addressed in this Unit:
- What is a due process complaint?
- Who may file a due process complaint?
- What is the subject matter of a due process complaint?
- Is there a time frame as to when the due process complaint must be filed?
- Does the school district need to provide the parents with information about legal services if they file a due process complaint?
- Do all states have to have due process procedures?
- Can a party have a hearing on a due process complaint until the party, or the attorney representing the party, files a due process complaint?
- What is a “sufficient” due process complaint?
- Does the complaint have to be sufficient?
- What steps are available to the complaining party if a hearing officer rules that the due process complaint is “insufficient”?
- When can a party amend a due process compliant?
- Is the local education agency required to respond to a parent’s due process complaint?
- How would parents know how to draft a due process complaint?
- When the local education agency is notified of a parent’s due process complaint, what must it do?
- What are the timelines for the due process hearing to occur?
- Must each party disclose to the other parties all of the evaluations completed by the date of the due process hearing?
- What are the requirements to be a hearing officer presiding over a due process hearing?
- What are the rights of parties at a due process hearing?
- Can the party that is requesting the due process hearing raise issues at the due process hearing that were not raised in the due process complaint?
- Who has the burden of proof in an IDEIA due process hearing?
- How is a decision about whether a child received a FAPE determined by a hearing officer?
- Are decisions at due process meeting final?
- How does the appeal process work?
- What are the timelines and convenience of hearings and reviews?
- Can parties bring a civil action with respect to the due process complaint notice requesting a due process hearing?
- What is the child’s status during the pendency of any administrative or judicial proceeding regarding a due process complaint notice requesting a due process hearing?
- Can the hearing officer award attorney fees?
Supplemental Readings - In this section, you will have the opportunity to reinforce concepts presented in Unit 51, including: Due Process Form-(NYS Sample), Due Process Hearings-1, Due Process Hearings-2, Due Process Hearings-3, and Due Process Letter-Sample.
Supplemental Videos - In addition to the video lecture presentation in Unit 51, the following supplemental videos are available to enhance the concepts learned: Basics: Due Process, The Due Process Hearing: Overview of the Process, Practice Tips, and Litigation Skills, and Mock Due Process.
Unit 52. Basic Principles of Inclusive Education
Video Lectures and PowerPoint Presentations - Inclusive education is educating students in age-appropriate general education classes in their neighborhood schools, with high quality instruction, interventions and supports so all students can be successful in the core curriculum. Inclusive schools have a collaborative and respectful school culture where students with disabilities are presumed to be competent, develop positive social relationships with peers, and are fully participating members of the school community. It means that students with and without disabilities learn alongside one another, in the same classroom setting, with lessons that are accessible for all. The term “inclusion” captures an all-embracing societal ideology. Inclusion secures opportunities for students with disabilities to learn alongside their non-disabled peers in general education classrooms. This lecture will provide you with an overview of basic principle in inclusive education. After watching this lecture, you should understand the following:
- Inclusive Education
- Inclusion Classroom
- Brief History of Inclusion
- Integrated Co-Teaching
- Benefits of Integrated Co-Teaching
- Rationale for Co-Teaching
- Benefits (Pros) of an Inclusive Education
- Drawbacks (Opponents/Cons) of an Inclusive Education
- Barriers to Inclusive Education
- Students without Disabilities in the Inclusion Classroom
- Indicators of a Successful Inclusive Program.
Supplemental Readings - In this section, you will have the opportunity to reinforce concepts presented in this Unit, including: Frequently Asked Questions on Intellectual Disability, Intellectual Disabilities, What are Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (IDDs)?, Problems with Inclusion in the Classroom, What It Takes to Make Co-Teaching Work, 19 Pros and Cons of Co-Teaching Models and Strategies, & Advantages and Disadvantages of Co-teaching.
Supplemental Videos - In addition to the video lecture presentation in this Unit, the following supplemental videos are available to enhance the concepts presented in this Unit: A Summary of The Evidence On Inclusive Education, Benefits of Co-Teaching, Co-teaching for Successful Inclusive Education, Educating Students with Learning Disabilities in , Inclusive Classrooms, Inclusion versus Full Inclusion, Inclusion Works!, and Two Perspectives on Inclusion In The United States.
Unit 53. Classroom Management Techniques for Students with Special Needs
Video Lectures and PowerPoint Presentations- Classroom management refers to all of the things that a teacher does to organize students, space, time and materials so that instruction in content and student learning can take place. In all that you communicate, no matter how insignificant or innocuous it may seem, it contributes to your status as a teacher and your ability to manage the classroom. How one manages the classroom is the primary determinant of how well your students learn. Conversely, when students are successful and actively engaged in their work, they tend to be well behaved. Therefore, keep students involved in their work, have students understand what is expected of them, maximize time on task, prevent confusion or disruption, and run a work simulated but relaxed and pleasant classroom. Most teachers have not taken courses on human nature and dynamics and are not aware of symptomatic behavior and what is means. This lack of understanding creates immense frustration which only hinders the teacher’s progress in working with fostering children’s academic success. The goal of this lecture is to present you with an easy-to-understand basis of why children do what they do and what to do when they do it. It is our hope that this insight will allow you to work more effectively in your inclusive classroom on the real issues that may be creating problems in and outside of school. We have also provided step by step suggestions on what to do when a specific behavior occurs in your classroom.
Supplemental Readings - In this section, you will have the opportunity to reinforce concepts presented in this Unit, including: 5 Essential Classroom Management Strategies to Keep Your Inclusive Class Running Smoothly, Creating a Classroom Environment That Promotes Positive Behavior, 11 Classroom Management Strategies for Children with Special Needs, & Creating a Learning Environment- Setting Expectations- Motivational Climate- Maintaining a Learning Environment- When Problems Occur.
Supplemental Videos - In addition to the video lecture presentation in this Unit, the following supplemental videos are available to enhance the concepts learned: Classroom Management Styles: What's Your Style?, Making Inclusion Successful: Practical Behavior Management Strategies for the Classroom, K-6, Classroom Management - Organize the , Physical Classroom, Zoom Classroom Management Tips & Classroom Management Tips For Teaching Online.
Critical Concepts in Special Education (Part 2)
Unit 54. Understanding, Developing and Using Functional Behavioral Assessments (FBA) for Students with Special Needs
Video Lecture and PowerPoint Presentation -
Educators have long understood that behavior difficulties can keep students from functioning productively in class. Many school personnel have been considering the effects of behavior on learning for some time. The 1997 Amendments to the IDEA take that consideration one step further: the relationship between behavior and learning must not only be considered but acted upon. The requirements specified in the 1997 Amendments to the IDEA that pertain to functional behavioral assessments and positive behavioral intervention plans and supports as they relate to the responsibilities of the IEP team and to the IEP itself are the subject of this part of the lecture. This is the first of 2 parts on developing and implementing functional behavioral assessments and behavior intervention plans. It is intended to be used by school personnel who participate in a student's IEP meetings which will include the inclusive educator. This initial discussion is not intended to provide a complete course of training, but to offer an overview of some of the techniques involved that you as an inclusive educator will face in your role. Further, we do not advocate one philosophical base over another. Rather, we promote a combination of techniques to address behavioral, cognitive, and affective functions of a student's behavior and advocate the development of positive behavioral interventions and supports that tap each of these areas as well.
Topics covered include:
- IEP Team Role and Responsibilities
- Why a Functional Behavioral Assessment is Important
- Conducting a Functional Behavioral Assessment
- Possible Alternate Assessment Measures
- Techniques for Conducting the Functional Behavioral Assessment
- Functional Assessment is a Team Effort
- A Method for Conducting a Functional Behavioral Assessment
Supplemental Readings - In this section, you will have the opportunity to reinforce concepts presented in Unit 54, including: Facilitating Inclusion by Reducing Problems Behaviors for Students With Autism Spectrum Disorders, How an FBA Can Help Children in the Classroom, 10 Steps to Understanding and Writting a Functional Behavior Assessment & Why Creating a Functional Behavior Assessment for Students is Important.
Supplemental Videos - In addition to the video lecture presentation in Unit 54, the following supplemental videos are available to enhance the concepts learned: The FBA, Functional Behavior Assessment: Special Education Decoded, A Summary of Functional Behavioral Analysis (FBA), Functional Behavior Assessment: Case Study Example, Using a Functional Behavioral Assessment to Understand Behavior & Behavioral Package Functional Behavioral Assessment.
Unit 55. Understanding, Developing and Using Behavioral Intervention Plans (BIP) for Students with Special Needs
Video Lecture and PowerPoint Presentation -
A Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP) can be used as a “proactive action plan to address behavior(s) that are impeding learning of the student or others.” It is assumed that lesser interventions have not been successful. If developed for a student with an IEP or 504 plan, this becomes a part of those documents. A BIP includes “positive behavioral interventions, strategies and supports." Behavior Intervention Plans should focus on understanding ‘why’ the behavior occurred (i.e., ‘the function’ or ‘communicative intent’) then focus on teaching an alternative behavior that meets the student’s need in a more acceptable way. This includes making instructional and environmental changes, providing reinforcement, reactive strategies and effective communication. Not every child gets a behavior plan. They’re meant for kids who have a lot of trouble behaving appropriately, and only when it gets in the way of their learning. Some kids already have 504 plans or IEPs to help them thrive in school.
For these kids, the 504 or IEP team will decide whether to add a BIP. If added, the plan becomes part of their education program. But kids don’t have to have a 504 plan or IEP to get a behavior plan. If kids act out in school and it’s hurting their learning, they might get a BIP. It’s up to the school to decide how to help. The focus of this lecture will be on Behavior Intervention Plans (BIP).
Topics covered include:
- What is a Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP)?
- Who Gets a Behavior Intervention Plan?
- Why Do I Have to Write One in an Inclusive Classroom?
- How Does a Behavior Intervention Plan Work?
- Who Should Be on a Behavior Intervention Team?
- How Do I Derive the Information Necessary to Write a Behavior Intervention Plan
- Direct Assessment
- ABC Charts
- Indirect Assessment
- Surveys or Questionnaires
- The Behavior Intervention Plan
- Components of a Behavior Intervention Plan
- Elements of a Positive Behavioral Intervention Plan
- Strategies to Address Hypothesized Functions
- Strategies for Dealing with Attention-Seeking Behaviors
- Strategies for Dealing with Escape Motivated Behaviors
- Addressing Skill Deficits
- Addressing Performance Deficits
- Selecting and Implementing Interventions
- Implementing Interventions and Reinforcing Behavior
- Maintaining Monitoring Behavior
- Consequences and Punishment
- Crisis Emergency Plan
- Progress Monitor and Modify the Plan
- Possible Issues that may Interfere with Effective Behavioral Plans
Supplemental Readings - In this section, you will have the opportunity to reinforce concepts presented in Unit 55, including: Behavior plan, does it work?, Best Practices for Behavior Intervention Plans & Recommended Procedures and Practices to Reduce the Use of Restraint and Seclusion in Schools.
Supplemental Videos - In addition to the video lecture presentation in Unit 55, the following supplemental videos are available to enhance the concepts learned: Behavioral Intervention Plans In Special Education: Special Education Decoded, Positive Behaviour Supports in Practice - Developing and Implementing a Behavior Plan, How Does A Behavior Support Plan Shape Behavior? & Essential Components to a behavior intervention plan.
Unit 56. Universal Design for Learning (UDL) in Inclusive Education
Video Lecture and PowerPoint Presentation -
Today’s classrooms are very busy places. They are filled with students who have diverse needs and learning challenges. To meet their needs, teachers may be equipped with a variety of instructional strategies and have many other tools in their tool boxes. However, even with multiple tools, trying to meet the unique needs of each individual child sometimes can feel daunting. One approach that can help teachers customize the curriculum to meet the needs of all learners is Universal Design for Learning (UDL). Universal Design for Learning originated with the term universal design. We know that every learner is unique, and one size doesn’t fit all. The Universal Design for Learning structure is research based and aims to change the design of classrooms, school practices and coursework rather than change each unique learner. It minimizes barriers and maximizes learning no matter what a student’s ability, disability, age, gender or cultural background might be. It reduces obstacles to learning and provides appropriate accommodations and supports. It does all of this while keeping expectations high for all students. Universal Design for Learning makes it possible for all learners to engage in meaningful learning by making sure everyone understands what is being taught. Coursework developed following Universal Design for Learning is flexible — the goals, methods, materials and assessments consider the full range of each learner’s needs. Students benefit from two major aspects of UDL: (1) its emphasis on flexible curriculum, and (2) the variety of instructional practices, materials, and learning activities. All students, including those learning English, older students, and those with disabilities appreciate the multifaceted ways content is presented, as well as options for demonstrating what they know. UDL helps educators meet the challenge of serving those with special needs while enhancing learning for all. The focus of this lecture will be to provide an overview of UDL in the inclusive classroom.
Topics covered include:
- Universal Design for Learning (UDL) in Inclusive Education-Introduction
- What is Universal Design for Learning (UDL)?
- The Three Principles of UDL
- Multiple means of representation
- Multiple means of action and expression
- Multiple means of engagement
- How Inclusive Teachers Can Use UDL in the Inclusive Classroom
Supplemental ReadingsIn this section, you will have the opportunity to reinforce concepts presented in Unit 56, including: Universal Design: A Key Concept for Inclusive School Success, Universal Design for Learning: Meeting the Needs of All Students, Universal Design may be old wine in new bottles but it works well with every cuisine!, Equal Access: Universal Design of Instruction & Harnessing Universal Design for Learning and SEL in Special Education.
Supplemental VideosIn addition to the video lecture presentation in Unit 56, the following supplemental videos are available to enhance the concepts learned: Universal Design for Learning (UDL) in Early Childhood (Building Inclusive Child Care BICC), Universal Design for Learning (UDL): Designing Lessons that Support All, Universal Design for Learning Promoting Inclusive Classrooms, Benefits of UDL for students with learning disabilities, & Universal Design for Learning (UDL) in the History-Social Science Classroom..
Unit 57. Overview of Assistive Technology Used in Special Education
Video Lecture and PowerPoint Presentation - As educators, you will need to be responsible for understanding and being aware of the numerous assistive technology (AT) options offered to children with special needs in your classroom. With the increase of technology in today’s society, nowhere is the use more evident than in the classroom situation. As an educator working with children with disabilities, you will be required to assess, use, purchase and monitor progress of a variety of assistive technology devices and software. Knowing what is available for children with different disabilities can enhance their performance in the classroom, and in many cases, even the playing field so that they can function in the classroom. Further, all IEPs contain a section on assistive technology and will often be an integral part of the child’s individualized education plan, along with modifications and accommodations. Since you may be actively involved in writing IEPs, you may be called upon for recommendations pertaining to assistive technology devices for your students. The goal of assistive technology is to facilitate success and independence for students with disabilities while they work toward their academic, social, communication, occupational and recreational goals. By addressing the students’ unique needs, assistive technology can reduce barriers to learning; assist students in progressing in their educational program; provide equitable access to the State’s learning standards; and Provide students with independence as they participate and progress along with their peers while in school and during post-school living, learning and working.
Additionally, assistive technology supports increase social and environmental access, completion of everyday tasks and can enhance an individual’s overall quality of life. This lecture will provide an overview of the different assistive technologies and how they are used for specific disabilities.
Supplemental Readings - In this section, you will have the opportunity to reinforce concepts presented in Unit 57, including: 8 Examples of Assistive Technology in the Classroom, The Role of Assistive Technology in Special Education, & What Happens When Assistive Technology Doesn’t Work- The Need for an Integrated Approach.
Supplemental Videos - In addition to the video lecture presentation in Unit 57, the following supplemental videos are available to enhance the concepts learned: Tools of Inclusion: Assistive Technology for Young Children, Creative Technology for Inclusion and Engagement, How Assistive Technology Supports Students With Disabilities, Assistive Technologies for Vision and Hearing Impaired Children, & Assistive Technology and UDL: Practical Strategies for Classroom Teachers.
Unit 58. Transition Services in Special Education
Video Lecture and PowerPoint Presentation - One of the areas that effects the lives of students with special needs as they get older is the transition between school and adult life after school. While it is crucial to make sure that these students have the most positive experience while in school, there is a process that needs to be understood by all teachers in an inclusive setting that will affect the rest of their life. This process is called “transition services” and is part of IDEA and required under the law. According to the law, these services must begin by age 14 and no later than 16 (but State law may make the age lower than what the federal law mandates). While teachers in in inclusive classroom on the secondary level will be directly involved in this process, teachers in inclusive settings on the elementary level should also be aware of this process in case they are working with parents of their children who have older siblings with special needs. Further when the elementary level students transition to the secondary level these elementary teachers should also be familiar with the Transition Process to make recommendations that may assist in this process. So why do you need to know this as an inclusion classroom teacher? You might be thinking, I teach 3rd grade or am a 7th grade middle school teacher…why do I need to know this topic of importance? There are many reasons why ALL inclusion teachers need to understand the transition process. The focus of this lecture will be to explain the importance of transition services to teachers working in the inclusive classroom.
Topics covered include:
- The Teacher’s Role in Transition Services
- The Transition Team
- Transition Services-Options
- Vocational Training Options in the Transition Process
- Vocational Assessment
- Post-Secondary/Continuing Education Options in the Transition Process
- Self Determination/Advocacy Options in the Transition Process
- Travel Training Options in the Transition Process
- Financial Awareness Options in the Transition Process
- Residential Placement Options in the Transition Process
- Medical and Health Options in the Transition Process
- Employment Options in the Transition Process
Supplemental Readings - In this section, you will have the opportunity to reinforce concepts presented in Unit 58, including: IEP Transition Planning: Preparing for Young Adulthood, Why Is Transition Planning Important in Special Education?, Transition Planning for Students with Disabilities: What’s After Public Education?, & Inclusive Postsecondary Education for Students with Intellectual Disabilities.
Supplemental Videos - In addition to the video lecture presentation in Unit 58, the following supplemental videos are available to enhance the concepts learned: How to Put Together a Successful IEP Transition Plan, Transition To Adulthood | Special Needs Transitional Services, Special Education Transition: Building Real World Skills, Transition Planning for Students with Emotional Behavioral Disorders: Making it Work, & Job coach training in special education.