Cerebral Palsy-Overview

What is Cerebral Palsy

Cerebral palsy is an umbrella-like term used to describe a group of chronic disorders impairing control of movement that appear in the first few years of life and generally do not worsen over time. The disorders are caused by faulty development of or damage to motor areas in the brain that disrupts the brain's ability to control movement and posture. Symptoms of cerebral palsy include difficulty with fine motor tasks (such as writing or using scissors), difficulty maintaining balance or walking, involuntary movements. The symptoms differ from person to person and may change over time. Some people with cerebral palsy are also affected by other medical disorders, including seizures or mental impairment, but cerebral palsy does not always cause profound handicap. Early signs of cerebral palsy usually appear before 3 years of age. Infants with cerebral palsy are frequently slow to reach developmental milestones such as learning to roll over, sit, crawl, smile, or walk.

Cerebral palsy may be congenital or acquired after birth. Several of the causes of cerebral palsy that have been identified through research are preventable or treatable: head injury, jaundice, Rh incompatibility, and rubella (German measles). Doctors diagnose cerebral palsy by testing motor skills and reflexes, looking into medical history, and employing a variety of specialized tests. Although its symptoms may change over time, cerebral palsy by definition is not progressive, so if a patient shows increased impairment, the problem may be something other than cerebral palsy.

Is there any treatment?

There is no standard therapy that works for all patients. Drugs can be used to control seizures and muscle spasms, special braces can compensate for muscle imbalance. Surgery, mechanical aids to help overcome impairments, counseling for emotional and psychological needs, and physical, occupational, speech, and behavioral therapy may be employed.

What is the prognosis?

At this time, cerebral palsy cannot be cured, but due to medical research, many patients can enjoy near-normal lives if their neurological problems are properly managed.

What research is being done?

Research suggests that cerebral palsy results from incorrect cell development early in pregnancy. For example, a group of researchers has recently observed that more than one-third of children with cerebral palsy also have missing enamel on certain teeth. Scientists are also examining other events—such as bleeding in the brain, seizures, and breathing and circulation problems—that threaten the brain of a newborn baby. Some investigators are conducting studies to learn whether certain drugs can help prevent neonatal stroke, and other investigators are examining the causes of low birth-weight. Other scientists are exploring how brain insults (like brain damage from a shortage of oxygen or blood flow, bleeding in the brain, and seizures) can cause the abnormal release of brain chemicals and trigger brain disease.
Select this link to view a list of all studies currently seeking patients.


Epilepsy Foundation
4351 Garden City Drive
Suite 500
Landover, MD 20785-7223
Tel: 301-459-3700 800-EFA-1000 (332-1000)
Fax: 301-577-2684
March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation
1275 Mamaroneck Avenue
White Plains, NY 10605
Tel: 914-428-7100 888-MODIMES (663-4637)
Fax: 914-428-8203
Easter Seals
230 West Monroe Street
Suite 1800
Chicago, IL 60606-4802
Tel: 312-726-6200 800-221-6827
Fax: 312-726-1494
United Cerebral Palsy (UCP)
1600 L Street, NW
Suite 700
Washington, DC 20036
Tel: 202-776-0406 800-USA-5UCP (872-5827)
Fax: 202-776-0414
National Disability Sports Alliance
25 West Independence Way
Kingston, RI 02881
Tel: 401-792-7130
Fax: 401-792-7132
Children's Neurobiological Solutions (CNS) Foundation
1726 Franceschi Road
Santa Barbara, CA 93103
Tel: 866-CNS-5580 (267-5580) 805-965-8838
Children's Hemiplegia and Stroke Assocn. (CHASA)
4101 West Green Oaks Blvd.
PMB #149
Arlington, TX 76016
Tel: 817-492-4325

Related NINDS Publications and Information

  • Cerebral Palsy: Hope Through Research
    Cerebral palsy information booklet compiled by NINDS, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.
  • La Parálisis Cerebral: Esperanza a través de la Investigación
    Información de la parálisis cerebral/Spanish-language booklet on cerebral palsy compiled by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS).
  • Spasticity
    Spasticity information sheet compiled by NINDS, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.
  • Children with Porencephaly, Stroke, and Cerebral Palsy Sought for Study
    Lay-language descriptions of new program announcements and clinical trials seeking patient volunteers.
  • Classification and Definition of Disorders causing Hypertonia in Childhood
    Consensus report of a meeting on hypertonia in childhood, April 22-24, 2001.
  •  (From the National Institute of Health)