Spacticity

What is Spasticity?

Spasticity is a condition in which certain muscles are continuously contracted. This contraction causes stiffness or tightness of the muscles and may interfere with movement, speech, and manner of walking. Spasticity is usually caused by damage to the portion of the brain or spinal cord that controls voluntary movement. It may occur in association with spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, damage to the brain because of lack of oxygen, brain trauma, severe head injury, and metabolic diseases such as adrenoleukodystrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig’s disease), and phenylketonuria. Symptoms may include hypertonicity (increased muscle tone), clonus (a series of rapid muscle contractions), exaggerated deep tendon reflexes, muscle spasms, scissoring (involuntary crossing of the legs), and fixed joints. The degree of spasticity varies from mild muscle stiffness to severe, painful, and uncontrollable muscle spasms. Spasticity can interfere with rehabilitation in patients with certain disorders, and often interferes with daily activities.

Is there any treatment?

Treatment may include such medications as baclofen, diazepam, tizanidine or clonazepam. Physical therapy regimens may include muscle stretching and range of motion exercises to help prevent shrinkage or shortening of muscles and to reduce the severity of symptoms. Surgery may be recommended for tendon release or to sever the nerve-muscle pathway.

What is the prognosis?

The prognosis for those with spasticity depends on the severity of the spasticity and the associated disorder(s).

What research is being done?

The NINDS supports research on brain and spinal cord disorders that can cause spasticity. The goals of this research are to increase scientific understanding about these disorders and to find ways to prevent, treat, and cure them.

Organizations
March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation
1275 Mamaroneck Avenue
White Plains, NY 10605
askus@marchofdimes.com
http://www.marchofdimes.com
Tel: 914-428-7100 888-MODIMES (663-4637)
Fax: 914-428-8203


National Multiple Sclerosis Society
733 Third Avenue
6th Floor
New York, NY 10017-3288
nat@nmss.org
http://www.nationalmssociety.org
Tel: 212-986-3240 800-344-4867 (FIGHTMS)
Fax: 212-986-7981


National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD)
P.O. Box 1968
(55 Kenosia Avenue)
Danbury, CT 06813-1968
orphan@rarediseases.org
http://www.rarediseases.org
Tel: 203-744-0100 Voice Mail 800-999-NORD (6673)
Fax: 203-798-2291


United Cerebral Palsy (UCP)
1600 L Street, NW
Suite 700
Washington, DC 20036
national@ucp.org
http://www.ucp.org
Tel: 202-776-0406 800-USA-5UCP (872-5827)
Fax: 202-776-0414


Worldwide Education & Awareness for Movement Disorders (WE MOVE)
204 West 84th Street
New York, NY 10024
wemove@wemove.org
http://www.wemove.org
Tel: 800-437-MOV2 (6682) 212-875-8312
Fax: 212-875-8389


Easter Seals
230 West Monroe Street
Suite 1800
Chicago, IL 60606-4802
info@easter-seals.org
http://www.easter-seals.org
Tel: 312-726-6200 800-221-6827
Fax: 312-726-1494


Related NINDS Publications and Information

•  Classification and Definition of Disorders causing Hypertonia in Childhood
Consensus report of a meeting on hypertonia in childhood, April 22-24, 2001.

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