Individuals with Disabilities Improvement Act (IDEA 1997)

On this page you will find numerous web sites on The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA ‘97).  It consists of the following topics:

IDEA 1997: Public Law 105-17

  • CEC IDEA Resources site - Contains a full copy of the IDEA Amendments of 1997, as well as several important memos and letters from the U.S. Department of Education..
  • Full Text of the Federal Regulations for 34 CFR Part 300, Assistance to States for the Education of Children With Disabilities - The purposes of this part are-- (a) To ensure that all children with disabilities have available to them a free appropriate public education that emphasizes special education and related services designed to meet their unique needs and prepare them for employment and independent living; (b) To ensure that the rights of children with disabilities and their parents are protected...
  • The IDEA Statute -- full text of Public Law 105-17 - Disability is a natural part of the human experience and in no way diminishes the right of individuals to participate in or contribute to society. Improving educational results for children with disabilities is an essential element of our national policy of ensuring equality of opportunity, full participation, independent living, and economic self-sufficiency for individuals with disabilities...
  • Sections of IDEA - IDEA is divided into four sections, called Part A – D. Each part relates to some area of educating children and youthwith disabilities. These parts are: Part A defines the terms used in the law. For example, the terms Child with a Disability and Free Appropriate Public Education are defined in Part A. Part B gives money to States to provide services for eligible children and youth with disabilities. Part B includes the rules and regulations that States and school systems must follow to receive funds from the Federal government...
  • Part B - Assistance for Education of All Children with Disabilities - Purpose of grants.--The Secretary shall make grants to States and the outlying areas, and provide funds to the Secretary of the Interior, to assist them to provide special education and related services to children with disabilities in accordance with this part...
  • Section 619 of Part B - In General.--The Secretary shall provide grants under this section to assist States to provide special education and related services, in accordance with this part-- (1) to children with disabilities aged 3 through 5, inclusive; and (2) at the State's discretion, to 2-year-old children with disabilities who will turn 3 during the school year...
  • Part C - Infants and Toddlers with Disabilities - Findings.--The Congress finds that there is an urgent and substantial need-- (1) to enhance the development of infants and toddlers with disabilities and to minimize their potential for developmental delay; (2) to reduce the educational costs to our society, including our Nation's schools, by minimizing the need for special education and related services after infants and toddlers with disabilities reach school age; (3) to minimize the likelihood of institutionalization of individuals with disabilities and maximize the potential for their independently living in society...
  • Part D - National Activities to Improve Education of Children with Disabilities - Findings.--The Congress finds the following: (1) States are responding with some success to multiple pressures to improve educational and transitional services and results for children with disabilities in response to growing demands imposed by ever-changing factors, such as demographics, social policies, and labor and economic markets. (2) In order for States to address such demands and to facilitate lasting systemic change that is of benefit to all students, including children with disabilities, States must involve local educational agencies, parents, individuals with disabilities and their families, teachers and other service providers, and other interested individuals and organizations in carrying out comprehensive strategies to improve educational results for children with disabilities...
  • Legal Definition of IDEA - To qualify under IDEA, a child must satisfy three criteria: (i) He must suffer from one or more of the categories of impairments delineated in IDEA; (ii) His impairment must adversely affect his educational performance, and; (iii) His qualified impairment must require special education and related services...

General Overview:

  • Overview of IDEA - At this moment, in 2005, you will hear of two IDEAs---the 1997 version of the law and the very recent, amended version, the 2004 IDEA. The 2004 IDEA will concern us now and into the future. But it is so new that discussing it is nearly impossible without referring to the prior 1997 version. So, here, we offer links to both versions.
  • Questions and Answers about IDEA - This document looks specifically at the mandates and requirements of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997 (IDEA), the federal law that supports special education and related services programming for children and youth with disabilities.
  • An Overview of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997 (P.L. 105-17): Update 1999 - IDEA is organized in four parts: Part A, General Provisions; Part B, Assistance for the Education of All Children with Disabilities (school age/preschool programs); Part C, Infants and Toddlers with Disabilities; and Part D, National Activities to Improve the Education of Children with Disabilities (support programs). P.L. 105-17 retains the major provisions of earlier federal laws in this area, including the assurance of having a free appropriate public education (FAPE) available to all children with disabilities, in the least restrictive environment (LRE), and the guarantee of due-process procedures and procedural safeguards.
  • The IDEA Amendments of 1997 - After two years of analysis, hearings, discussions, and other legislative activities, both the Senate and the House of Representatives have passed legislation that reauthorizes and amends the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). President Clinton signed the bill into law on June 4, 1997. The reauthorized legislation is called the "Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997," and is Public Law 105-17.
  • IDEA ’97: Overview - The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997 were signed into law on June 4, 1997.This Act strengthens academic expectations and accountability for the nation's 5.8 million children with disabilities and bridges the gap that has too often existed between what children with disabilities learn and what is required in regular curriculum.
  • How IDEA Works - IDEA is working to educate our nation's children with disabilities. To understand IDEA it is helpful to know what common abbreviations and acronyms mean. IDEA guides the entire special education process. IDEA encourages using assistive technology to help educate children with disabilities.
  • History of IDEA - The IDEA stands for the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Every year, under this federal law, millions of children with disabilities receive special educational services designed to meet their unique needs.
  • Individuals with Disabilities Education Act – Background - The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) was originally authorized in 1975 as the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. This Act was designed to support states and localities in protecting the rights of and meeting the individual needs of infants, toddlers, children, and youth with disabilities and their families in order to improve results for these populations. The goals were to assure all students a free appropriate education and to increase learning and achievement.
  • IDEA News - The Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) is the largest international professional organization dedicated to improving educational outcomes for individuals with exceptionalities, students with disabilities, and/or the gifted. CEC advocates for appropriate governmental policies, sets professional standards, provides continual professional development, advocates for newly and historically underserved individuals with exceptionalities, and helps professionals obtain conditions and resources necessary for effective professional practice.

Professional Development

  • Assessment and Accommodations - Students with disabilities, and those with gifts and talents, are given a wide variety of assessments, ranging from standardized assessments to individual assessments to determine the students' strengths, abilities, and areas of weakness, as well as mastery of knowledge and skills.
  • Assistive Technology/Technology Integration - Every year, new technology comes on the market that can enhance the learning of students with exceptionalities. The right technology can provide a student with a disability access to learning opportunities few dared to dream of just a decade ago and provide them the means for academic success.
  • Behavioral/Discipline - Effective behavior management is critical for quality learning to occur. To help you employ effective behavior management strategies for all students, CEC has created this resource. It includes information on behavior management for students with behavior disorders, individual students, and schools as well as research, and current issues concerning behavior management as well as CEC policies and resources.
  • Cultural and Linguistic Diversity - Given the high number of students from diverse backgrounds, today it is more important than ever before that educators be aware of cultural differences. Lack of knowledge of these differences can lead to the overrepresentation of students from diverse backgrounds in special educations and the underrepresentation of these students in gifted and talented programs.
  • Curriculum and Instruction - Special educators are known for their expertise in effective instructional strategies for students with exceptionalities. With the advent of No Child Left Behind, we are also required to be experts in content and the general education curriculum.
  • Disability-Specific Resources - Gifted students with disabling conditions remain a major group of underserved and understimulated youth (Cline, 1999). The focus on accommodations for their disabilities may preclude the recognition and development of their cognitive abilities. It is not unexpected, then, to find a significant discrepancy between the measured academic potential of these students and their actual performance in the classroom (Whitmore & Maker, 1985).
  • Early Childhood - Early childhood special education, which can start at ages birth – 3, is critical for young children with special needs. The intervention services the child with special needs and the family will receive are outlined in the Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP). Services can include, among others, special instruction, speech-language therapy, occupational therapy, physical therapy, and family training and counseling.
  • Evaluation/Reevaluation - PDF file.  Adds provision for parental consent for initial evaluation for children who are wards of the state. If the child is a ward of the state and not residing with the child's parent, the agency must make reasonable efforts to obtain the informed consent from the parent of the child for an initial evaluation to determine whether the child is a child with a disability.
  • Family and Community - Having families involved in their children’s education is a positive experience for all. The parents can reinforce learning and skills taught in the classroom, and parents and teachers can work together to solve problems that may arise. To help you collaborate with the families of your students, CEC has created this resource. It includes strategies to encourage family involvement as well as CEC policies and resources.
  • Finance, Funding, and Fiscal Coordination - Includes links to Student Guide to Financial Aid, What Should I Know About ED Grants, Education Department General Administrative Regulations (EDGAR), Guide to US Department of Education Programs, Federal Register, Commerce Business Daily, and ED Grant Announcements...
  • IEPs and IFSPs - To help you write IEPs that work for your students and meet legislative requirements, CEC has created this resource. It includes information about policy changes that affect the IEP, how to reduce paperwork connected with the IEP, and strategies to write effective IEPs, and how to conduct positive IEP meetings, as well as CEC policies and resources.
  • Inclusion - Inclusion is a term used to describe the ideology that each child, to the maximum extent appropriate, should be educated in the school and classroom he or she would otherwise attend. It involves bringing support services to the child (rather than moving the child to the services) and requires only that the child will benefit from being in the class (rather than having to keep up with the other students).
  • Paraeducators and Paraprofessionals - To help you learn more about the role paraeducators fill, as well as the responsibilities of special education teachers supervising paraeducators, CEC has developed this resource. Here, you will find information on the roles and responsibilities of and training for paraeducators as well as current issues about paraeducators and resources.
  • Professional Education and Development - While many people entering the field of special education become classroom teachers, there is a great variety of career paths available in the field. These profiles provide details about the typical responsibilities, preparation required, personal qualities, job outlook and advancement, and sources of additional information for many of the career choices in special education.
  • Regional and Federal Resource Centers
  • Related Services - Supplemental and Related Services refers to those services a child or youth with a disability may need to progress educationally. These services may include professionals such as school psychologists, occupational therapists, speech-language therapists, physical therapists.
  • Special Education-General Information - The special education administrator plays a key and multi-faceted role in our education systems. Just some of the responsibilities the special education administrator fulfills are: Determine educational standards and goals for special education programs; ensure that those programs comply with federal, state, and local laws;...
  • Standards and Accountability - The highly qualified requirements for special education teachers, as set forth in the 2004 IDEA and NCLB are complex and it is important that special educators understand how these requirements affect them and their practice...
  • Transition - Recently the concept of transition planning for students with disabilities has been broadened to include other points in a student’s educational career. For example, transition planning is being done for students transitioning from elementary to middle school and from middle school to high school. Transition planning is also being provided for students to transition from high school to a college or other post-secondary learning environment.

Reauthorization

  • The Latest Scoop on Reauthorization - The Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) is hard at work developing regulations for the IDEA 2004. They hope to have this done within a year. If you're interested in knowing more about the plans they have with respect to assuring effective implementation of the new law, you'll want to read the "Dear Colleagues" letter that is available on OSERS Web site. It's authored by Stephanie Lee, the then-director of the Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP), one of the three branches within OSERS.
  • Senate's Calendar and Schedule - The Senate's Legislative Calendar is updated each day the Senate is in session. The calendar, composed of several sections, identifies bills and resolutions awaiting Senate floor actions. Most measures are placed on the calendar under the heading "General Orders" in the sequence in which they were added to the calendar. Other sections are provided to address special situations in which floor actions have been deferred and to show the status of bills in conference and of appropriations bills.
  • What's Reauthorization All About? - The word is out—IDEA is being reauthorized! But what does this mean? This short article will give you the basics about this very important special education law, including: its history, its different sections, an overview of how laws are passed and reauthorized, the upcoming IDEA reauthorization and how Congress has started the process this time 'round, and what's next.
  • Overview of How Laws are Passed and Reauthorized - When a federal law such as IDEA is passed, it requires Congress and the President to agree that the law is important and that the way the law is written is appropriate. The Congress may begin the process of writing the law, or the President may. The Congress usually begins by assigning a number of Senators to work in committee on a draft of the law. This draft is known as a "bill." There's usually a committee in the House of Representatives as well. The House often drafts its own bill. In the upcoming reauthorization of IDEA, the Senate committee is called HELP—the Senate Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions Committee.
  • The Upcoming Reauthorization of IDEA - About every five years, Parts C and D of the IDEA must be reauthorized. This means that these sections of the law will expire (in other words, not be in force) unless Congress passes them again (hence the word reauthorization). Part B was considered so important that it is permanently authorized. This means that it will not expire.
  • Sources of Other Information on Reauthorization - As reauthorization gathers momentum, a lot of information about the process will become available. NICHCY is just one source of information. We encourage you to investigate what other organizations have to say and how they are involved in this important legal process.
  • Reauthorization Update - Slide deck from NECTAC.org

Annual Reports to Congress

  • 23rd Annual Report to Congress:  Office of Special Education Programs, 2001 - The results section includes five modules. The first module presents State-reported data on high school graduation rates for students with disabilities. The second provides information about the participation and performance of students with disabilities in State assessment systems. It also discusses alternate assessments. The third module describes challenges to providing secondary education and transition services to youth with disabilities and presents strategies for meeting those challenges. Outcomes for Students with Problem Behaviors in School is the fourth module. It examines trends and outcomes for students with problem behaviors and describes effective prevention practices. The last module in this section presents data from the National Early Intervention Longitudinal Study (NEILS).
  • 22nd Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act: OSEP, 2000 - This Twenty-second Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) marks the 25th anniversary of the passage of P.L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975. The annual reports published since that time have informed Congress and the public of the steady progress made in implementing the Act and reflect a history of persistent commitment and efforts to expand educational opportunities for children with disabilities.
  • 21st Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act:  OSEP, 1999 - Research indicates that the overwhelming majority of parents of children with disabilities are involved in their children's education through meetings with teachers, volunteering at school, helping with homework, or other school- and home-based activities.
  • 20th Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of IDEA:  OSEP, 1998 - The 20th Annual Report to Congress was written immediately after the reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). This report reflects the greater emphasis the IDEA Amendments of 1997 place on measurable results, through improved accountability and data collection efforts. It also discusses school reform efforts that have been under way for several years. These changes are taking place at the national, state, and local levels and should result in positive changes for infants, toddlers, children, and youth with disabilities.
  • 19th Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of the IDEA, OSEP, 1997 - Over the past 15 years, general education reforms have focused on six major policy areas: standards development, assessment, accountability, governance, teachers, and finance. During the same period, special education programs have been changing as a result of efforts to promote inclusion of students with disabilities in regular education classrooms, to decrease inappropriate identification of students with disabilities (particularly cultural- or language-minority children), and to improve postschool results of all students receiving special education services.

IDEA: Special Interest Articles

  • IDEA'97 Provisions of Special Interest to Teachers - This is a description of changes that have been made to the IDEA Part B final regulations (including certain items that have been retained, modified, or added since publication of the NPRM) that may be of special interest to teachers
  • IDEA'97 Provisions of Special Interest to Parents - This is a description of selected provisions in the final IDEA-Part B regulations (including certain items that have been retained, modified, or added since publication of the NPRM) that may be of special interest to parents.
  • IDEA Part B Provisions of Special Interest to Administrators - News and information on the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA), the nation's law that works to improve results for infants, toddlers, children and youth with disabilities.

IDEA: Special Topics

  • Overview of the Major Discipline Provisions in the 1999 IDEA Regulations - The purpose of this paper is to describe the major provisions in the final regulations applicable to the disciplining of children with disabilities. The paper describes: The authority of school personnel and others to remove a child with a disability from his or her current placement; When educational services must begin for a child with a disability; Functional behavioral assessments and behavioral intervention plans; Manifestation determinations; and Application of the stay put provision.
  • Questions and Answers about Provisions in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997 Related to Students with Disabilities and State and District-wide Assessments - Requirements for including all children in assessments are based on a number of federal laws, including Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (Section 504), Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA), Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (Title I), and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997 (IDEA). Assessment is often associated with direct individual benefits such as promotion, graduation, and access to educational services.
  • The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1997 Transition Requirements: A Guide for States, Districts, Schools, Universities and Families - PDF file.  The purpose of this monograph is to provide technical assistance for the appropriate implementation of the transition requirements of Public Law 105-17, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) of 1997 and the final regulations published on March 12, 1999 (http://www.ideapractices.org/lawandregs.htm). This monograph is designed to clarify the transition requirements of the IDEA, provide samples, and suggest practices to implement those requirements.
  • Special Education Advocacy Under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) For Children in the Juvenile Delinquency System - The intended audience for this manual is defense attorneys who represent children in delinquency matters and in status offenses; the intended audience includes also disability rights attorneys and other public interest attorneys with an interest in representing children who are enmeshed in the delinquency system. Children strive to be productive and to be accepted. Children who are marginalized and considered to be delinquent are, in large proportions, also children with education-related disabilities. Typically, children in the delinquency system "failed" in the education system before entering the delinquency system.
  • State and Jurisdictional Eligibility Definitions for Infants and Toddlers With Disabilities Under IDEA - Analyzes states' Part C definitions of developmental delay, established conditions, and biological and environmental risk categories. A chart lists definitions and identifies states serving at-risk children.

Materials

  • Professional Development Resources - Take one of CEC's new online courses and get the training you need--delivered right to your desktop! You’ll learn about the most critical topics affecting special educators today--all from the convenience of your school, home, or office. Our self-paced courses are available anytime from any computer with Internet access. We add new courses frequently, so watch this page for new course announcements.
  • IDEA '97 Training Package - The OSEP training package on IDEA. This is the Table of Contents for the text-only version of the training package. As offered here on-line, the training package on IDEA contains: (a) materials originally developed in 1997 after Congress passed the statute for IDEA, and (b) an addendum written after the final Federal regulations for IDEA were published in 1999. You can use these materials to better understand the law that guides the provision of special education and related services to children with disabilities in the United States.
  • Training Materials and IDEA - These transparencies and training materials were developed at PACER Center by the Families and Advocates Partnership for Education (FAPE) project and the Technical Assistance Alliance for Parent Centers (Alliance).
  • IDEA '97 Regulations Training Overheads - This training package from the Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) focuses on some of the legal requirements and provisions of IDEA '97. The package contains more than 500 pages of background information, resources, handouts, and training scripts on the law, and a series of 145 overhead transparencies (available in both English and Spanish) that can be used when providing training on the law. (Note: The training package is no longer available in print, only on the Web. Now it's been revised to talk about the Federal regulations!)
  • IDEA '97 Training Package - The training package is comprised of 14 modules or chapters, plus a collection of more than 150 overheads in English. Spanish overheads are also available. As such, the training package is simply too large to be placed on-line in one Acrobat PDF file . We've broken down each module, and each section of each module, into separate PDF files. You will see in the Table of Contents below that the background text on the statute, addendum text on the Federal regulations, handouts, resources, training script, and overheads are presented in separate files. Keep in mind that not every one of the modules has all these components.
  • Overheads: OSEP's Letters on IDEA: February 1999 to mid-March 2000 Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP), U.S. Department of Education, and NICHCY, 2000 - NICHCY is pleased to offer training overheads developed to capture the key points of selected OSEP letters. These letters span from February 1999 to mid-March 2000. We have organized the overheads by the various sections of the law addressed in the letters. To help you select which sections or letters might address an area of particular interest to you, we offer a detailed description of the letters in each section.
  • Overheads on Part B IDEA Regulations - Native Language, Limited English Proficiency , and Transportation, OSEP-Overheads available in text and PDF format - The Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP), U.S. Department of Education, is pleased to offer two additional sets of training overheads on the IDEA regulations. The first set addresses the use of "native language" and "limited English proficiency" in Part B regulations. The second set addresses the use of "transportation" in Part B. For your convenience, we offer these materials in two different formats; text-only and PDF (portable document format).
  • Links to OSEP-Sponsored Web Sites and Projects - The FRC works closely with OSEP and the TA&D Network to coordinate special education technical assistance efforts across regions and topical areas.
  • OSEP Part C Data Dictionary - PDF file.  Westat is under contract to the Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) to provide technical assistance in the collection of data for programs authorized under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). One of the areas of assistance requested by States was a dictionary of terms that appear in the annual data reports.
  • OSEP-Reviewed Materials on IDEA '97 - The materials listed on this page relate to the latest reauthorization of IDEA--IDEA 2004---in other words, the statute as it was passed by Congress and signed by the President in 2004. NICHCY is pleased to provide this list of selected published materials that have been reviewed by the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) for consistency with the IDEA Amendments of 2004. Each listing either has a link to the publication online, or information on how to obtain the publication.


Partnership Projects funded by the U.S. Department of Education

  • Families/ Advocates -- Families and Advocates Partnership of Education (FAPE) - Thank you for visiting. The Families and Advocates Partnership for Education (FAPE) project is a partnership that aims to improve the educational outcomes for children with disabilities. It links families, advocates, and self-advocates to information about the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). The project is designed to address the information needs of the 6 million families throughout the Country whose children with disabilities receive special education services.
  • Policymakers -- The Policymaker Partnership - The Policymaker Partnership at the National Association of State Directors of Special Education is education's policy connection to the 1997 amendments of the Individuals with Disability Education Act. The Policymaker Partnership is one of four linked projects funded by the United States Department of Education's Office of Special Education Programs.

OSEP-Reviewed Materials on IDEA '97

The National Dissemination Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities provides this list of selected published materials that have been reviewed by the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) for consistency with the IDEA Amendments of 1997 (Public Law 105-17) and the final implementing regulations, published March 12, 1999.

Assessment

  • General State and District-Wide Assessments - Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP), U.S. Department of Education, 1999.  This Topic Brief summarizes IDEA 97's final regulations with respect to student participation in general state and district-wide assessments.
  • How to Conduct Alternate Assessments: Practices in Nine States (Mid-South Regional Resource Center, 1999) - A paper which looks at what instruments are used and how test results are scored in alternate assessments for students with disabilities in nine states.  States face significant challenges in selecting appropriate methods and formats for alternate assessment, not the least of which is having a system operational by July 1, 2000. Olsen (1998) has suggested the following issues to address as a state decides how to administer and score alternate assessments.
  • Making Asessment Accomodations: A Toolkit for Educators - Questions and Answers about Provisions in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997 Related to Students with Disabilities and State and District-wide Assessments, Office of Special Education Programs, U.S. Department of Education, 2000.  This memo from OSEP responds to frequently asked questions by parents, professionals, assessment coordinators, State education agency staff, and others regarding the provisions in IDEA '97 for including all children in state and district-wide assessments. It is also available in Adobe Acrobat (memo) format. (Note: A brief, family-friendly version (memo) of this memo is also available).
  • Summary of Research on Test Changes: An Empirical Basis for Defining Accommodations - Mid-South Regional Resource Center, 2000 (Revised).  This document, authored by Tindal & Fuchs, looks at the IEP as a vehicle for expressing a student's need for test accommodations. Research on test changes is summarized, and issues of validity are examined, with primary consideration given to using the research to implement sound testing practices and make appropriate educational decisions.
  • The Use of Tests when Making High-Stakes Decisions for Students:A Resource Guide for Educators and Policymakers - Office for Civil Rights, U.S. Department of Education, 2000.  This resource guide explains basic test measurement standards and related educational principles for determining whether tests used as part of making high-stakes decisions for students provide accurate and fair information. Information is also presented about four federal nondiscrimination laws: Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, and Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990.
  • What Gets Tested, Gets Taught; Who Gets Tested, Gets Taught - Mid-South Regional Resource Center, 1998.  A paper which describes various approaches taken by some states that have accepted the challenge of creating links with the state adopted curriculum frameworks.
  • Who Takes the Alternate Assessment? - State Criteria Mid-South Regional Resource Center, 1998.  A document on the question of whom to include in the alternate assessment. Directed to states and local agencies that have yet to develop these criteria.

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders

  • Children with ADD/ADHD - Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP), U.S. Department of Education, 1999.  This short Topic Brief looks at the eligibility of children with ADD/ADHD under IDEA 97's final regulations.

Behavior / Discipline / Safe Schools

  • Addressing Student Problem Behavior: An IEP Team's Introduction to Functional Behavioral Assessment and Behavior Intervention Plans - Center for Effective Collaboration and Practice, 1998.  This document, part of the series Addressing Student Problem Behavior, is a tool to help educators understand the requirements of IDEA 97 with regard to addressing behavior problems and implementing the fundamental principles and techniques of functional behavioral assessment and positive behavioral supports with students with behavior problems. Two additional documents in the series are listed below.
  • Addressing Student Problem Behavior: Part II: Conducting a Functional Assessment - Center for Effective Collaboration and Practice, 1998.  This document, Part Two in the series Addressing Student Problem Behavior, provides an in-depth discussion of the rationale for functional behavioral assessment and instructions for how to conduct the process.
  • Addressing Student Problem Behavior: Part III: Creating Positive Behavioral Intervention Plans and Supports - Center for Effective Collaboration and Practice, June 2000.  This document, Part Three in the series Addressing Student Problem Behavior, takes a closer look at using the results of the functional behavioral assessment to create, implement, and evaluate the effectiveness of positive behavioral intervention plans and supports.
  • Discipline Procedures - Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP), U.S. Department of Education, 1999.  This Topic Brief presents a summary of the key points associated with the discipline procedures in the final regulations.
  • Early Warning, Timely Response: A Guide to Safe Schools - Center for Effective Collaboration and Practice, 1998.  This guide is intended to help districts identify children in need of intervention for potentially violent emotions and behaviors. It can be acquired from the Center's Web site or through the U.S. Department of Education, at 1-877-433-7827.
  • Interim Alternative Educational Settings: Related Research and Program Considerations - Project FORUM, 1999.  This document provides a brief perspective on the emergence of the interim alternative educational setting (IAES) concept, followed by a discussion of the unique characteristics of IAESs. The last section reviews effective school-based interventions for students with chronic conduct problems. The report can be purchased by going to the National Association of State Directors of Special Education (NASDSE) Web site, clicking on publications, and searching by title. You can also contact NASDSE via mail or telephone, at: NASDSE, 1800 Diagonal Road, Suite 320, Alexandria, VA 22314. Telephone: (703) 519-3800.
  • Overview of the Major Discipline Provisions in the 1999 IDEA Regulations - Robert Silverstein, The Center for the Study and Advancement of Disability Policy, 1999.  This document summarizes the major provisions related to disciplining of students with disabilities.
  • Role of Education in a System of Care: Effectively Serving Children with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders - PDF file. Center for Effective Collaboration and Practice, 1999.  This is one of seven monographs and profiles effective school-based mental health systems of care.
  • Safe, Drug-Free, and Effective Schools for ALL Students: What Works! - Center for Effective Collaboration and Practice, 1998.  This report profiles six different approaches in three different communities or districts to addressing schoolwide prevention and reduction of violent and aggressive behavior by all students.
  • Safeguarding Our Children: An Action Guide - Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP), U.S. Department of Education, 2000.  This guide follows up on the 1998 Early Warning, Timely Response: A Guide To Safe Schools and is intended to help schools and communities prevent school violence. The Action Guide emphasizes early intervention and prevention, and the importance of teamwork among educators, mental health professionals, parents, and students. This guide is also available in Spanish.
  • Schoolwide Approaches to Behavior Office of Special Education Programs - (OSEP), U.S. Department of Education.  A growing number of schools have found that the most effective way to reduce suspensions, expulsions, office referrals, and other behaviorally related actions is to emphasize a schoolwide commitment and approach to behavior. This short fact sheet lists key principles of practice and organizations that can provide more information on the topic.

Charter Schools

  • Applying Federal Civil Rights Laws to Public Charter Schools: Questions and Answers - U.S. Department of Education and the Office for Civil Rights, May 2000.  This publication provides important information on how public charter schools may be developed and operated consistent with federal nondiscrimination laws. The purpose of this publication is to assist charter school developers and operators by making available a summary of civil rights issues a pplicable to public schools. Two of the sections deal specifically with students with disabilities: "Selection of Facilities to Provide Access to Students with Disabilities" and "Educating Students with Disabilities."
  • Charter Schools and Students with Disabilities:Review of Existing Data - Office of Educational Research and Improvement (OERI), U.S. Department of Education, 1998.  This report, prepared by Research Triangle Institute for OERI, provides a summary of existing research data and of the policy-relevant analyses that have focused on charter schools and students with disabilities. Although OERI has been replaced by the Institute of Education Sciences, the report is still available online in both text-only and PDF formats.
  • Public Charter Schools - Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP), U.S. Department of Education, 1999.  This Topic Brief looks at IDEA 97's two new provisions with respect to public charter schools, the comments received during the public comment period following release of proposed regulations, and the changes incorporated into the final regulations.

Definitions

  • Definition of "Day; Business day; School day" - Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP), U.S. Department of Education, 1999.  This Topic Brief looks at the final regulations' definitions of "day," "business day," and "school day," how these vary from what had been proposed, and why the changes and the definitions themselves were necessary.
  • Developmental Delay Use of "Developmental Delay" - by States and LEAs Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP), U.S. Department of Education, 1999.  This Topic Brief looks at the changes made to the definition of "developmental delay" as part of the reauthorization of IDEA and the release of final regulations.

Evaluations / Reevaluations

  • Your Child's Evaluation - NICHCY, 1999. A four-page description of the evaluation process in easy-to-understand terms. It is also available in Spanish translation.  Many children have trouble in school. Some, like Laura, have trouble learning to read or write. Others have a hard time remembering new information. Still others may have trouble behaving themselves. Children can have all sorts of problems. It's important to find out why a child is not doing well in school. The child may have a disability. By law, schools must provide special help to eligible children with disabilities. This help is called special education and related services.

Graduation

  • Graduation with a Regular Diploma - Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP), U.S. Department of Education, 1999.  This Topic Brief looks at the provisions proposed in the Notice of Public Rulemaking (NPRM) with respect to graduation with a regular diploma, the comments received during the public comment period, and the changes that were made and released in the final regulations.

Homelessness

  • Educating Children with Disabilities Who Are Homeless - Project FORUM, 2000.  This 48-page document is the proceedings of a policy forum held December 5-7, 1999. Federal laws pertaining to the education of children with disabilities who are homeless are summarized, examples of state services are provided, and challenges for this population are identified. This document also include strategies to address the identified challenges.

IDEA Amendments of 1997

  • Amendments to IDEA '97 Final Regulations Released - Families and Advocates Partnership for Education, 1999.  This family-friendly piece outlines some of the changes that have occurred in the law and regulations that may be of particular interest to parents. It is also available in Hmong translation.
  • IDEA Amendments of 1997 - NICHCY, 1998.  This 40-page News Digest looks in detail at the major changes that have taken place in the IDEA.
  • The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1997 Transition Requirements: A Guide for States, Districts, Schools, Universities and Families - Western Regional Resource Center and The College of Education & Human Development, University of Minnesota, 2000.  This monograph looks closely at IDEA 97's transition requirements, suggests a process for addressing those requirements in the IEP, and includes many sample materials.
  • Overheads: OSEP Regional Trainings on the IDEA '97 Regulations - NICHCY, 1999.  These overheads, developed by NICHCY, were used by OSEP in regional trainings conducted on the regulations.
  • Overheads: OSEP's Letters on IDEA: February 1999 to mid-March 2000 - Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP), U.S. Department of Education, and NICHCY, 2000.  OSEP receives letters from all over the country asking for clarification on the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). OSEP responds with letters that contain interpretations of the requirements of IDEA and its implementing regulations. These training overheads capture the key points of selected OSEP letters dated from February 1999 to mid-March 2000.
  • Overheads: Use of "Native Language" and "Limited English Proficiency" in Part B - Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP).  U.S. Department of Education, and NICHCY, 2000.  These training overheads from OSEP address the use of "native language" and "limited English proficiency" in Part B regulations.
  • Overheads: Use of "Transportation" in Part B - Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP), U.S. Department of Education, and NICHCY, 2000.  These training overheads from OSEP address the use of "transportation" in Part B.
  • An Overview of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997 (P.L. 105-17) - ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education (ERIC EC), June 1999.  This ERIC Digest (#E576) looks briefly at some of the changes that IDEA 97 brings to special education practice nationwide. The document then lists highlights of the law in the areas of: outcomes and standards, evaluation and curriculum, procedural safeguards, discipline, early intervention services, and professional training and preparation.
  • Questions and Answers about the IDEA - NICHCY, 2000.  29 pages of answers to many of the questions families and professionals have about the requirements of the IDEA. A Spanish version is also available.
  • Rights and Responsibilities of Parents of Children with Disabilities - ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education (ERIC EC), June 1999.  This ERIC Digest (#575) briefly lists parents' rights and responsibilities in the special education process, describes what parents can offer the IEP or IFSP process, and lists five national organizations that can provide more information and assistance to parents.
  • User's Guide to the 1999 IDEA Regulations - Robert Silverstein, The Center for the Study and Advancement of Disability Policy, 1999.  This 54-page guide summaries the changes made to the IDEA with the 1997 amendments. 

Inclusion

  • Improving Education: The Promise of Inclusive Schooling - National Institute for Urban School Improvement, 2000.  This is a short booklet developed to explain inclusion to general educators and families. It includes principles of instruction, and is available in English and Spanish.

Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) and IFSPs

  • Guide to the Individualized Education Program - Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP), U.S. Department of Education, 2000.  The purpose of this guidance is to assist educators, parents, and State and local educational agencies in implementing the requirements of Part B of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) regarding Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) for children with disabilities, including preschool-aged children. (This guide does not discuss the development of Individualized Family Service Plans (IFSP) for infants and toddlers.)
  • Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) - NICHCY, 1999.  A 32-page guide to the legal requirements for developing a student's IEP, including a verbatim reprinting of Appendix A of the regulations.
  • Regular Education Teachers as IEP Team Members - Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP), U.S. Department of Education, 1999. This Topic Brief looks at what the IDEA 97 requires in terms of the regular education professional's participation on the IEP team.

Mediation

  • Overheads: Mediation - Consortium for Appropriate Dispute Resolution in Special Education (CADRE), 2001.  These 34 overheads from CADRE can be used to provide training on what the IDEA's requirements are with respect to mediation. The overheads are also available Adobe Acrobat (overheads) format.
  • Questions and Answers about Mediation - Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP), U.S. Department of Education, 2000.  This nine-page OSEP document (OSEP Memorandum 01-5) is intended to assist state and local education officials, as well as parents of children with disabilities, in understanding the requirements of Part B of the IDEA as applied to mediation. The memo is also available in Adobe Acrobat (memo 01-5) format. The two-page OSEP cover letter is available separately (also in Adobe Acrobat).

Preschool

  • IDEA Requirements for Preschoolers: IDEA Early Childhood Policy and Practice Guide - Division for Early Childhood, Council for Exceptional Children, and ASPIIRE IDEA Partnership Project, 2000.  This is the first in a series of guides designed to answer important questions about what IDEA '97 now requires for the education of young children with disabilities, ages birth through five years old. The guide also includes a pull-out chart of selected IDEA provisions that address a preschooler's challenging behavior. To order, call the Council for Exceptional Children at 1-888-232-7733 or e-mail service@cec.sped.org. Ask for Product #P5373.

Private Schools

  • Parentally-placed Children in Private Schools - Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP), U.S. Department of Education, 1999.  This Topic Brief summarizes IDEA 97's final regulations with respect to parentally-placed children in private schools, with emphasis on major changes made from the Notice of Public Rulemaking (NPRM).
  • Questions and Answers on Obligations of Public Agencies in Serving Children with Disabilities Placed by Their Parents at Private Schools - Office of Special Education Programs, U.S. Department of Education, 2000.  This memo from OSEP responds to requests from the field for guidance regarding the nature and extent of school districts' obligations to parentally-placed private school children with disabilities under Part B of IDEA. The memo is also available in Adobe Acrobat (OSEP memo) format.

Procedural Safeguards

  • Rights and Responsibilities of Parents of Children with Disabilities - ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education (ERIC EC), June 1999.  This ERIC Digest (#575) briefly lists parents' rights and responsibilities in the special education process, describes what parents can offer the IEP or IFSP process, and lists five national organizations that can provide more information and assistance to parents.

Related Services

  • Related Services (ND16) - NICHCY, 2001.  This 20-page publication focuses upon the related services identified within IDEA '97, including occupational and physical therapy, speech-language pathology, transportation, and school health services. It describes what each service involves, how children with disabilities become eligible for the services, and how the services are determined, delivered, and funded. This publication is also available in Spanish (ND16-sp). www.nichcy.org/pubs/newsdig/nd16txt.htm

Special Education

  • Questions Often Asked by Parents About Special Education Services - NICHCY, 1999.  This is a 12-page discussion of the IDEA which answers questions about how students with disabilities access special education and related services. This publication is also available in Spanish (LG1-sp).
  • Related Services (ND16) - NICHCY, 2001.  This 20-page publication focuses upon the related services identified within IDEA '97, including occupational and physical therapy, speech-language pathology, transportation, and school health services. It describes what each service involves, how children with disabilities become eligible for the services, and how the services are determined, delivered, and funded. This publication is also available in Spanish (ND16-sp).
  • Rights and Responsibilities of Parents of Children with Disabilities - ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education (ERIC EC), June 1999.  This ERIC Digest (#575) briefly lists parents' rights and responsibilities in the special education process, describes what parents can offer the IEP or IFSP process, and lists five national organizations that can provide more information and assistance to parents.
  • Understanding the Special Education Process - Families and Advocates Partnership for Education (FAPE), 1999.  This family-friendly paper shows, via a chart and explanatory text, a basic overview of the special education process from the request for an evaluation of the child to completion of the annual IEP meeting. The document is also available in Spanish (FAPE document) and Hmong (FAPE document).

Standards-based Education

  • Every Single Student - PEER Project, 2000.  This is a manual on standards-based education and students with disabilities in grades K-12.
  • Students with Disabilities in Standards-Based Reform: A Framing Paper for the National Summit on the Shared Implementation of IDEA - IDEA Partnership Projects, 2001.  This framing paper discusses the multiple perspectives, research issues, and ongoing challenges within standards-based reforms. It addresses the benefits of standards-based curriculum for students with disabilities and the increasing participation of students with disabilities state and district-wide assessments.

Transition

  • The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1997 Transition Requirements: A Guide for States, Districts, Schools, Universities and Families -Western Regional Resource Center, Mountain Plains Regional Resource Center, Arizona State University West, and National Transition Network, 2000.  This monograph looks closely at IDEA 97's transition requirements, suggests a process for addressing those requirements in the IEP, and includes many sample materials.

The Latest Scoop on IDEA Reauthorization

  • The latest scoop on IDEA reauthorization - Reauthorization is obviously finished as a legislative process. This will be our last Latest Scoop! You can read all about the process of reauthorization, though, from beginning to end, in the Latest Scoops below.

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