RTI Roundtable

Welcome to the NASET RTI Roundtable, NASET’s e-publication on the latest information on Response to Intervention (RTI).  RTI is a newly-identified process described in the federal special education law (IDEA 2004) for identifying students with learning disabilities.The RTI process is a multi-tiered approach to providing services and interventions to struggling learners at increasing levels of intensity. RTI can be used for making decisions about general, compensatory, and special education, creating a well-integrated and seamless system of instruction and intervention guided by child outcome data. The NASET RTI Roundtable is a monthly education resource that provides members with the latest information on RTI in Question and Answer format.

RTI Roundtable Q & A

Issue #1 Questions:

  • What is Responsiveness to Intervention (RTI)?
  • What is the Purpose of RTI?
  • Why is RTI Important?
  • What Are Other Benefits of RTI?
  • Is RTI a “New Approach”?
  • What are the Core Principles of RTI?


 

Issue #2 Questions:

  • Why Was There A Movement Towards Change Towards RTI?
  • What is a Tiered Service Delivery Model?
  • What is the Three-Tier model?
  • What is the Focus of Tier 1?
  • What is the Focus of Tier II?
  • What is the Focus of Tier III?
  • Is RTI Just Applicable to Special Education?
  • What are Some Conditions and Activities of RTI?
  • Is There Federal Funding to Support RTI Related Activities?
  • Does RTI Address Challenging Behavior?
  • Does a School District’s “Child Find” Obligations Change within RTI Systems?
  • Is Parent Involvement and Important Component for Successful RTI Programs?
  • Can RTI Promote Optimal Learning?
  • What is Fidelity?
  • Does Implementation of RTI Methods Require a Serious Commitment?
  • What Does the RTI Process Mean for Teachers?
  • What Do Teachers Need in Terms of Professional Development and RTI?

Issue #3 Questions:

  • How Does IDEA 2004 Define a Specific Learning Disability?
  • How Have Children Been Identified Under the Category of Specific Learning Disabilities?
  • What Events Led to Changes in LD Identification in IDEA 2004?
  • Why Replace the Discrepancy Model with RTI?
  • What are Major Issues Related to the Use of the Concept of Achievement-Ability Discrepancy? Why Change?
  • Why was RTI Considered in the Process of SLD Determination?
  • Today, What Role Should RTI Play in the Identification of Children with a Specific Learning Disability?
  • Can RTI Be Used as the Sole Determinant for SLD Classification?
  • Are There Other Indicators of LD That are More Valid and Reliable?
  • If Authorities Believe Underlying Processing Disorders are the Cause of Learning Disabilities, Why Doesn’t IDEA 2004 Include a Model Based on Measuring Processing Problems?
  • In the Big Picture, How Does RTI Fit Into the Determination of LD Process?


Issue # 4 Questions: 

  • What Basic Decisions Should a School or District Make Before Implementing RTI?
  • How Do You Measure Academic Growth?
  • How Do You Use Validated Interventions?
  • How Do You Distinguish Between Types of Learning and Performance Problems?
  • How Do You Determine the Effects of Instruction and Make Decisions about Cutoff Criteria?
  • What is Problem Solving or Hypothesis Testing?
  • What are Pre Referral Approaches?
  • What is Tiered Intervention?


Issue # 5 Questions: 

  • What is Screening?
  • What Considerations Are Part of the Selection of Appropriate Screening Measures?
    • Accuracy
    • Cut Score
    • Criterion versus Norm Referenced Measures
    • Efficiency
  • How is School-Wide Screening Done Within an RTI Model?
    • How to target students for preventative intervention


Issue # 6 Questions: 

  • What is Progress Monitoring?
  • How Can Progress Monitoring Be Useful in an RTI Context?
  • What Role Does Progress Monitoring Play in SLD?
  • How is Progress Monitoring Accomplished in Tier 1?
  • How is Progress Monitoring Accomplished in Tier 2 and Tier 3?
  • How is Progress Monitoring Accomplished in Special Education?
  • Will the Implementation of a Progress Monitoring System within an RTI Model Require Shifts in School Structures?


Issue # 7 Questions: 

  • What is a Multitiered Service Delivery Model?
  • What is Tier I-Core Instruction?
  • What Percentage of the Student Body Must Tier I Serve?
  • What are the Core Features of a Tier 1 Intervention?
  • How Does Tier 1 Fit Within an RTI Model?
  • What is Universal Screening and/or Benchmarking?
  • How is Progress Monitoring Done in Tier I?
  • What if Students Do NOT reach a Proficiency Level at Tier I?
  • How Will Tier 1 Interventions Affect Staff and School Structures?
  • What is an Intervention?
  • What is a Tier 2 Intervention?
  • When Does Tier 2 Intervention Start?
  • What Percentage of Students Need Tier II Interventions?
  • Are Strategic Interventions in Tier II Short or Long-Term?
  • What are the Core Features of a Tier 2 (and beyond) Intervention?
  • How Long Should Tier 2 Interventions Be?
  • What is a Problem-Solving Approach (Individually Designed
  • Instructional Package)?
  • What is a Standard-Protocol Approach?
  • How is Progress Monitoring Done in Tier II?
  • What if Students are Successful at Tier II?  What if They are Unsuccessful?
  • How Does Tier 2 (and Beyond) Fit Within an RTI Model?
  • Will Tier 2 (and Beyond) Interventions Affect Staff Roles, Responsibilities and School Structures?
  • What are Tier III Interventions?
  • What Percentage of Students Need Tier III Interventions?
  • Who Delivers Tier III Interventions?
  • Is Progress Monitoring Still a Part of Tier III?
  • How are Tier III Interventions Delivered?
  • What if Students are Successful at Tier III?  What if They are Unsuccessful?

Issue # 8 

  • What is Problem Solving in RTI?

Problem solving is a data-based decision making process that is used to identify needed interventions for students in Tiers I, II and III. Decisions are made by teams that are composed of individuals who are qualified to make the important educational decisions to help students succeed in school. As a general rule, the composition of a decision making team changes by adding additional specialists’ expertise as students move from tier to tier. When using problem solving or standard treatment protocol techniques, decision making teams should always include the student’s general education teacher(s) and parents. If districts choose to use existing teams, they may need to modify procedures to align with the problem solving steps discussed in this issue of the RTI Roundtable.


Issue # 9 

RTI Models in Special Education

This issue of the RTI Roundtable provides answers to the following questions:

  • Why is Special Education an Integral Step in a Multitiered Model Such as RTI?
  • How Does Special Education Fit Within an RTI Model?
  • When Should a School District Initiate a Special Education Referral in a RTI System?
  • If a Student is Determined Not Eligible for Special Education Services, How Long May That Student Continue to Receive the Intensive Interventions Provided at Tier III?
  • How Might Specially Designed Instruction (SDI) Differ From the Tier III Interventions a Student May Have Been Receiving Prior to Qualifying for Special Education Services?
  • Can a School District use RTI Data to Support the Decision That a Student Has a Disability in a Special Education Disability Category Other Than SLD?
  • How Will Use of the RTI Process Affect Special Education Referrals?
    What Changes Are Needed in Special Education to Staff Roles, Responsibilities, and School Structures?


Issue # 10 

Parent Involvement in the RTI Model

This issue of the RTI Roundtable provides answers to the following questions:

  • What Does IDEA State About Parental Involvement?
  • What Should Parents Know About the RTI Program in Their School?
  • What Questions Should Parents Ask About RTI in Their Schools?
  • Are There Standards for Judging Parent Involvement?
  • Are There Measures Used to Judge Parent Involvement?


Issue # 11 

Fidelity of Implementation

This issue of the RTI Roundtable provides answers to the following questions:

  • What is Fidelity of Implementation?
  • Why is Fidelity of Implementation Important?
  • How Can Schools Ensure Fidelity of Implementation?
  • What Are the Three Dimensions that Keep Implementation of Fidelity Manageable for Schools?
  • How Does a School Achieve High Fidelity?
  • Does Fidelity of Implementation Affect School Structures and Staff’s Roles, and Responsibilities?

Issue # 12 

Review System Requirements for Response to Intervention

This issue of the RTI Roundtable provides answers to the following questions:

  • What is a Leadership Team?
  • What is Teaming?
  • How Do You Use a Research-Based Core Curriculum?
  • What are Valid Screening or Identification Procedures and Decision Rules?
  • What are Adopted Intervention Protocols and Progress Monitoring Intervention Protocols?
  • What are Policy and Procedure Development including Special Education Procedures?
  • What is Capacity Building?

Issue # 13

Application of the RtI Model in Learning Disability Diagnosis: Perception of Current Practices by New Jersey Special Education Administrators

This issue of NASET’s RTI roundtable was written by Pamela E. Lowry, Ed.D. from Georgian Court University and was published in the Spring 2013 edition of the Journal of the American Academy of Special Education Professionals (JAASEP).  Dr. Lowry’s paper examines current practices in implementing a Response to Intervention (RtI) in diagnosing specific learning disabilities. The use of the aptitude achievement discrepancy model, RtI model or a combination is reviewed.  A survey of special education administrators in New Jersey compares methods of identification and consistency of application across districts. Findings indicate that few districts are currently implementing RtI along with the discrepancy model in determining eligibility with a specific learning disability.  No district is using RtI as the sole determinant for this classification category.  RtI models differ across districts with no consistency in interventions or screening tools.

Issue # 14

Common Progress Monitoring Omissions: Planning and Practice

This issue of NASET’s RTI Roundtable focuses on five common omissions in progress monitoring practices and planning and explains how these activities are integral to the process of meaningful data-based decision making. NASET acknowledges the National Center on Response to Intervention (January 2013) for providing the information from: Progress Monitoring Brief #1 Common Progress Monitoring Omissions: Planning and Practice. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs, National Center on Response to Intervention.

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